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SubjectRe: [RFC, v2, 2/9] hyper_dmabuf: architecture specification and reference guide
From
Date
Sorry for top-posting

Can we have all this go into some header file which

will not only describe the structures/commands/responses/etc,

but will also allow drivers to use those directly without

defining the same one more time in the code? For example,

this is how it is done in Xen [1]. This way, you can keep

documentation and the protocol implementation in sync easily


On 02/14/2018 03:50 AM, Dongwon Kim wrote:
> Reference document for hyper_DMABUF driver
>
> Documentation/hyper-dmabuf-sharing.txt
>
> Signed-off-by: Dongwon Kim <dongwon.kim@intel.com>
> ---
> Documentation/hyper-dmabuf-sharing.txt | 734 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
> 1 file changed, 734 insertions(+)
> create mode 100644 Documentation/hyper-dmabuf-sharing.txt
>
> diff --git a/Documentation/hyper-dmabuf-sharing.txt b/Documentation/hyper-dmabuf-sharing.txt
> new file mode 100644
> index 000000000000..928e411931e3
> --- /dev/null
> +++ b/Documentation/hyper-dmabuf-sharing.txt
> @@ -0,0 +1,734 @@
> +Linux Hyper DMABUF Driver
> +
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +Section 1. Overview
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +Hyper_DMABUF driver is a Linux device driver running on multiple Virtual
> +achines (VMs), which expands DMA-BUF sharing capability to the VM environment
> +where multiple different OS instances need to share same physical data without
> +data-copy across VMs.
> +
> +To share a DMA_BUF across VMs, an instance of the Hyper_DMABUF drv on the
> +exporting VM (so called, “exporter”) imports a local DMA_BUF from the original
> +producer of the buffer, then re-exports it with an unique ID, hyper_dmabuf_id
> +for the buffer to the importing VM (so called, “importer”).
> +
> +Another instance of the Hyper_DMABUF driver on importer registers
> +a hyper_dmabuf_id together with reference information for the shared physical
> +pages associated with the DMA_BUF to its database when the export happens.
> +
> +The actual mapping of the DMA_BUF on the importer’s side is done by
> +the Hyper_DMABUF driver when user space issues the IOCTL command to access
> +the shared DMA_BUF. The Hyper_DMABUF driver works as both an importing and
> +exporting driver as is, that is, no special configuration is required.
> +Consequently, only a single module per VM is needed to enable cross-VM DMA_BUF
> +exchange.
> +
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +Section 2. Architecture
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +1. Hyper_DMABUF ID
> +
> +hyper_dmabuf_id is a global handle for shared DMA BUFs, which is compatible
> +across VMs. It is a key used by the importer to retrieve information about
> +shared Kernel pages behind the DMA_BUF structure from the IMPORT list. When
> +a DMA_BUF is exported to another domain, its hyper_dmabuf_id and META data
> +are also kept in the EXPORT list by the exporter for further synchronization
> +of control over the DMA_BUF.
> +
> +hyper_dmabuf_id is “targeted”, meaning it is valid only in exporting (owner of
> +the buffer) and importing VMs, where the corresponding hyper_dmabuf_id is
> +stored in their database (EXPORT and IMPORT lists).
> +
> +A user-space application specifies the targeted VM id in the user parameter
> +when it calls the IOCTL command to export shared DMA_BUF to another VM.
> +
> +hyper_dmabuf_id_t is a data type for hyper_dmabuf_id. It is defined as 16-byte
> +data structure, and it contains id and rng_key[3] as elements for
> +the structure.
> +
> +typedef struct {
> + int id;
> + int rng_key[3]; /* 12bytes long random number */
> +} hyper_dmabuf_id_t;
> +
> +The first element in the hyper_dmabuf_id structure, int id is combined data of
> +a count number generated by the driver running on the exporter and
> +the exporter’s ID. The VM’s ID is a one byte value and located at the field’s
> +SB in int id. The remaining three bytes in int id are reserved for a count
> +number.
> +
> +However, there is a limit related to this count number, which is 1000.
> +Therefore, only little more than a byte starting from the LSB is actually used
> +for storing this count number.
> +
> +#define HYPER_DMABUF_ID_CREATE(domid, id) \
> + ((((domid) & 0xFF) << 24) | ((id) & 0xFFFFFF))
> +
> +This limit on the count number directly means the maximum number of DMA BUFs
> +that can be shared simultaneously by one VM. The second element of
> +hyper_dmabuf_id, that is int rng_key[3], is an array of three integers. These
> +numbers are generated by Linux’s native random number generation mechanism.
> +This field is added to enhance the security of the Hyper DMABUF driver by
> +maximizing the entropy of hyper_dmabuf_id (that is, preventing it from being
> +guessed by a security attacker).
> +
> +Once DMA_BUF is no longer shared, the hyper_dmabuf_id associated with
> +the DMA_BUF is released, but the count number in hyper_dmabuf_id is saved in
> +the ID list for reuse. However, random keys stored in int rng_key[3] are not
> +reused. Instead, those keys are always filled with freshly generated random
> +keys for security.
> +
> +2. IOCTLs
> +
> +a. IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_TX_CH_SETUP
> +
> +This type of IOCTL is used for initialization of a one-directional transmit
> +communication channel with a remote domain.
> +
> +The user space argument for this type of IOCTL is defined as:
> +
> +struct ioctl_hyper_dmabuf_tx_ch_setup {
> + /* IN parameters */
> + /* Remote domain id */
> + int remote_domain;
> +};
> +
> +b. IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_RX_CH_SETUP
> +
> +This type of IOCTL is used for initialization of a one-directional receive
> +communication channel with a remote domain.
> +
> +The user space argument for this type of IOCTL is defined as:
> +
> +struct ioctl_hyper_dmabuf_rx_ch_setup {
> + /* IN parameters */
> + /* Source domain id */
> + int source_domain;
> +};
> +
> +c. IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_REMOTE
> +
> +This type of IOCTL is used to export a DMA BUF to another VM. When a user
> +space application makes this call to the driver, it extracts Kernel pages
> +associated with the DMA_BUF, then makes those shared with the importing VM.
> +
> +All reference information for this shared pages and hyper_dmabuf_id is
> +created, then passed to the importing domain through a communications
> +channel for synchronous registration. In the meantime, the hyper_dmabuf_id
> +for the shared DMA_BUF is also returned to user-space application.
> +
> +This IOCTL can accept a reference to “user-defined” data as well as a FD
> +for the DMA BUF. This private data is then attached to the DMA BUF and
> +exported together with it.
> +
> +More details regarding this private data can be found in chapter for
> +“Hyper_DMABUF Private Data”.
> +
> +The user space argument for this type of IOCTL is defined as:
> +
> +struct ioctl_hyper_dmabuf_export_remote {
> + /* IN parameters */
> + /* DMA buf fd to be exported */
> + int dmabuf_fd;
> + /* Domain id to which buffer should be exported */
> + int remote_domain;
> + /* exported dma buf id */
> + hyper_dmabuf_id_t hid;
> + /* size of private data */
> + int sz_priv;
> + /* ptr to the private data for Hyper_DMABUF */
> + char *priv;
> +};
> +
> +d. IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_FD
> +
> +The importing VM uses this IOCTL to import and re-export a shared DMA_BUF
> +locally to the end-consumer using the standard Linux DMA_BUF framework.
> +Upon IOCTL call, the Hyper_DMABUF driver finds the reference information
> +of the shared DMA_BUF with the given hyper_dmabuf_id, then maps all shared
> +pages in its own Kernel space. The driver then constructs a scatter-gather
> +list with those mapped pages and creates a brand-new DMA_BUF with the list,
> +which is eventually exported with a file descriptor to the local consumer.
> +
> +The user space argument for this type of IOCTL is defined as:
> +
> +struct ioctl_hyper_dmabuf_export_fd {
> + /* IN parameters */
> + /* hyper dmabuf id to be imported */
> + int hyper_dmabuf_id;
> + /* flags */
> + int flags;
> + /* OUT parameters */
> + /* exported dma buf fd */
> + int fd;
> +};
> +
> +e. IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_UNEXPORT
> +
> +This type of IOCTL is used when it is necessary to terminate the current
> +sharing of a DMA_BUF. When called, the driver first checks if there are any
> +consumers actively using the DMA_BUF. Then, it unexports it if it is not
> +mapped or used by any consumers. Otherwise, it postpones unexporting, but
> +makes the buffer invalid to prevent any further import of the same DMA_BUF.
> +DMA_BUF is completely unexported after the last consumer releases it.
> +
> +”Unexport” means removing all reference information about the DMA_BUF from the
> +LISTs and make all pages private again.
> +
> +The user space argument for this type of IOCTL is defined as:
> +
> +struct ioctl_hyper_dmabuf_unexport {
> + /* IN parameters */
> + /* hyper dmabuf id to be unexported */
> + int hyper_dmabuf_id;
> + /* delay in ms by which unexport processing will be postponed */
> + int delay_ms;
> + /* OUT parameters */
> + /* Status of request */
> + int status;
> +};
> +
> +f. IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY
> +
> +This IOCTL is used to retrieve specific information about a DMA_BUF that
> +is being shared.
> +
> +The user space argument for this type of IOCTL is defined as:
> +
> +struct ioctl_hyper_dmabuf_query {
> + /* in parameters */
> + /* hyper dmabuf id to be queried */
> + int hyper_dmabuf_id;
> + /* item to be queried */
> + int item;
> + /* OUT parameters */
> + /* output of query */
> + /* info can be either value or reference */
> + unsigned long info;
> +};
> +
> +<Available Queries>
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_TYPE
> + - Return the type of DMA_BUF from the current domain, Exported or Imported.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_EXPORTER
> + - Return the exporting domain’s ID of a shared DMA_BUF.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_IMPORTER
> + - Return the importing domain’s ID of a shared DMA_BUF.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_SIZE
> + - Return the size of a shared DMA_BUF in bytes.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_BUSY
> + - Return ‘true’ if a shared DMA_BUF is currently used
> + (mapped by the end-consumer).
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_UNEXPORTED
> + - Return ‘true’ if a shared DMA_BUF is not valid anymore
> + (so it does not allow a new consumer to map it).
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_DELAYED_UNEXPORTED
> + - Return ‘true’ if a shared DMA_BUF is scheduled to be unexported
> + (but is still valid) within a fixed time.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_PRIV_INFO
> + - Return ‘private’ data attached to shared DMA_BUF to the user space.
> + ‘unsigned long info’ is the user space pointer for the buffer, where
> + private data will be copied to.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_PRIV_INFO_SIZE
> + - Return the size of the private data attached to the shared DMA_BUF.
> +
> +3. Event Polling
> +
> +Event-polling can be enabled optionally by selecting the Kernel config option,
> +Enable event-generation and polling operation under xen/hypervisor in Kernel’s
> +menuconfig. The event-polling mechanism includes the generation of
> +an import-event, adding it to the event-queue and providing a notification to
> +the application so that it can retrieve the event data from the queue.
> +
> +For this mechanism, “Poll” and “Read” operations are added to the Hyper_DMABUF
> +driver. A user application that polls the driver goes into a sleep state until
> +there is a new event added to the queue. An application uses “Read” to retrieve
> +event data from the event queue. Event data contains the hyper_dmabuf_id and
> +the private data of the buffer that has been received by the importer.
> +
> +For more information on private data, refer to Section 3.5).
> +Using this method, it is possible to lower the risk of the hyper_dmabuf_id and
> +other sensitive information about the shared buffer (for example, meta-data
> +for shared images) being leaked while being transferred to the importer because
> +all of this data is shared as “private info” at the driver level. However,
> +please note there should be a way for the importer to find the correct DMA_BUF
> +in this case when there are multiple Hyper_DMABUFs being shared simultaneously.
> +For example, the surface name or the surface ID of a specific rendering surface
> +needs to be sent to the importer in advance before it is exported in a surface-
> +sharing use-case.
> +
> +Each event data given to the user-space consists of a header and the private
> +information of the buffer. The data type is defined as follows:
> +
> +struct hyper_dmabuf_event_hdr {
> + int event_type; /* one type only for now - new import */
> + hyper_dmabuf_id_t hid; /* hyper_dmabuf_id of specific hyper_dmabuf */
> + int size; /* size of data */
> +};
> +
> +struct hyper_dmabuf_event_data {
> + struct hyper_dmabuf_event_hdr hdr;
> + void *data; /* private data */
> +};
> +
> +4. Hyper_DMABUF Private Data
> +
> +Each Hyper_DMABUF can come with private data, the size of which can be up to
> +AX_SIZE_PRIV_DATA (currently 192 byte). This private data is just a chunk of
> +plain data attached to every Hyper_DMABUF. It is guaranteed to be synchronized
> +across VMs, exporter and importer. This private data does not have any specific
> +structure defined at the driver level, so any “user-defined” format or
> +structure can be used. In addition, there is no dedicated use-case for this
> +data. It can be used virtually for any purpose. For example, it can be used to
> +share meta-data such as dimension and color formats for shared images in
> +a surface sharing model. Another example is when we share protected media
> +contents.
> +
> +This private data can be used to transfer flags related to content protection
> +information on streamed media to the importer.
> +
> +Private data is initially generated when a buffer is exported for the first
> +time. Then, it is updated whenever the same buffer is re-exported. During the
> +re-exporting process, the Hyper_DMABUF driver only updates private data on
> +both sides with new data from user-space since the same buffer already exists
> +on both the IMPORT LIST and EXPORT LIST.
> +
> +There are two different ways to retrieve this private data from user-space.
> +The first way is to use “Read” on the Hyper_DMABUF driver. “Read” returns the
> +data of events containing private data of the buffer. The second way is to
> +make a query to Hyper_DMABUF. There are two query items,
> +HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_PRIV_INFO and HYPER_DMABUF_QUERY_PRIV_INFO_SIZE available
> +for retrieving private data and its size.
> +
> +5. Scatter-Gather List Table (SGT) Management
> +
> +SGT management is the core part of the Hyper_DMABUF driver that manages an
> +SGT, a representation of the group of kernel pages associated with a DMA_BUF.
> +This block includes four different sub-blocks:
> +
> +a. Hyper_DMABUF_id Manager
> +
> +This ID manager is responsible for generating a hyper_dmabuf_id for an
> +exported DMA_BUF. When an ID is requested, the ID Manager first checks if
> +there are any reusable IDs left in the list and returns one of those,
> +if available. Otherwise, it creates the next count number and returns it
> +to the caller.
> +
> +b. SGT Creator
> +
> +The SGT (struct sg_table) contains information about the DMA_BUF such as
> +references to all kernel pages for the buffer and their connections. The
> +SGT Creator creates a new SGT on the importer side with pages shared by
> +the hypervisor.
> +
> +c. Kernel Page Extractor
> +
> +The Page Extractor extracts pages from a given SGT before those pages
> +are shared.
> +
> +d. List Manager Interface
> +
> +The SGT manger also interacts with export and import list managers. It
> +sends out information (for example, hyper_dmabuf_id, reference, and
> +DMA_BUF information) about the exported or imported DMA_BUFs to the
> +list manager. Also, on IOCTL request, it asks the list manager to find
> +and return the information for a corresponding DMA_BUF in the list.
> +
> +6. DMA-BUF Interface
> +
> +The DMA-BUF interface provides standard methods to manage DMA_BUFs
> +reconstructed by the Hyper_DMABUF driver from shared pages. All of the
> +relevant operations are listed in struct dma_buf_ops. These operations
> +are standard DMA_BUF operations, therefore they follow standard DMA BUF
> +protocols.
> +
> +Each DMA_BUF operation communicates with the exporter at the end of the
> +routine for “indirect DMA_BUF synchronization”.
> +
> +7. Export/Import List Management
> +
> +Whenever a DMA_BUF is shared and exported, its information is added to the
> +database (EXPORT-list) on the exporting VM. Similarly, information about an
> +imported DMA_BUF is added to the importing database (IMPORT list) on the
> +importing VM, when the export happens.
> +
> +All of the entries in the lists are needed to manage the exported/imported
> +DMA_BUF more efficiently. Both lists are implemented as Linux hash tables.
> +The key to the list is hyper_dmabuf_id and the output is the information of
> +the DMA_BUF. The List Manager manages all requests from other blocks and
> +transactions within lists to ensure that all entries are up-to-date and
> +that the list structure is consistent.
> +
> +The List Manager provides basic functionality, such as:
> +
> +- Adding to the List
> +- Removal from the List
> +- Finding information about a DMA_BUF, given the hyper_dmabuf_id
> +
> +8. Page Sharing by Hypercalls
> +
> +The Hyper_DMABUF driver assumes that there is a native page-by-page memory
> +sharing mechanism available on the hypervisor. Referencing a group of pages
> +that are being shared is what the driver expects from “backend” APIs or the
> +hypervisor itself.
> +
> +For the example, xen backend integrated in current code base utilizes Xen’s
> +grant-table interface for sharing the underlying kernel pages (struct *page).
> +
> +More details about grant-table interface can be found at the following locations:
> +
> +https://wiki.xen.org/wiki/Grant_Table
> +https://xenbits.xen.org/docs/4.6-testing/misc/grant-tables.txt
> +
> +9. Message Handling
> +
> +The exporter and importer can each create a message that consists of an opcode
> +(command) and operands (parameters) and send it to each other.
> +
> +The message format is defined as:
> +
> +struct hyper_dmabuf_req {
> + unsigned int req_id; /* Sequence number. Used for RING BUF
> + synchronization */
> + unsigned int stat; /* Status.Response from receiver. */
> + unsigned int cmd; /* Opcode */
> + unsigned int op[MAX_NUMBER_OF_OPERANDS]; /* Operands */
> +};
> +
> +The following table gives the list of opcodes:
> +
> +<Opcodes in Message to Exporter/Importer>
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT (exporter --> importer)
> + - Export a DMA_BUF to the importer. The importer registers the corresponding
> + DMA_BUF in its IMPORT LIST when the message is received.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_FD (importer --> exporter)
> + - Locally exported as FD. The importer sends out this command to the exporter
> + to notify that the buffer is now locally exported (mapped and used).
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_FD_FAILED (importer --> exporter)
> + - Failed while exporting locally. The importer sends out this command to the
> + exporter to notify the exporter that the EXPORT_FD failed.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_NOTIFY_UNEXPORT (exporter --> importer)
> + - Termination of sharing. The exporter notifies the importer that the DMA_BUF
> + has been unexported.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_OPS_TO_REMOTE (importer --> exporter)
> + - Not implemented yet.
> +
> +HYPER_DMABUF_OPS_TO_SOURCE (exporter --> importer)
> + - DMA_BUF ops to the exporter, for DMA_BUF upstream synchronization.
> + Note: Implemented but it is done asynchronously due to performance issues.
> +
> +The following table shows the list of operands for each opcode.
> +
> +<Operands in Message to Exporter/Importer>
> +
> +- HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT
> +
> +op0 to op3 – hyper_dmabuf_id
> +op4 – number of pages to be shared
> +op5 – offset of data in the first page
> +op6 – length of data in the last page
> +op7 – reference number for the group of shared pages
> +op8 – size of private data
> +op9 to (op9+op8) – private data
> +
> +- HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_FD
> +
> +op0 to op3 – hyper_dmabuf_id
> +
> +- HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_FD_FAILED
> +
> +op0 to op3 – hyper_dmabuf_id
> +
> +- HYPER_DMABUF_NOTIFY_UNEXPORT
> +
> +op0 to op3 – hyper_dmabuf_id
> +
> +- HYPER_DMABUF_OPS_TO_REMOTE(Not implemented)
> +
> +- HYPER_DMABUF_OPS_TO_SOURCE
> +
> +op0 to op3 – hyper_dmabuf_id
> +op4 – type of DMA_BUF operation
> +
> +9. Inter VM (Domain) Communication
> +
> +Two different types of inter-domain communication channels are required,
> +one in kernel space and the other in user space. The communication channel
> +in user space is for transmitting or receiving the hyper_dmabuf_id. Since
> +there is no specific security (for example, encryption) involved in the
> +generation of a global id at the driver level, it is highly recommended that
> +the customer’s user application set up a very secure channel for exchanging
> +hyper_dmabuf_id between VMs.
> +
> +The communication channel in kernel space is required for exchanging messages
> +from “message management” block between two VMs. In the current reference
> +backend for Xen hypervisor, Xen ring-buffer and event-channel mechanisms are
> +used for message exchange between impoter and exporter.
> +
> +10. What are required in hypervisor
> +
> +emory sharing and message communication between VMs
> +
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +Section 3. Hyper DMABUF Sharing Flow
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +1. Exporting
> +
> +To export a DMA_BUF to another VM, user space has to call an IOCTL
> +(IOCTL_HYPER_DMABUF_EXPORT_REMOTE) with a file descriptor for the buffer given
> +by the original exporter. The Hyper_DMABUF driver maps a DMA_BUF locally, then
> +issues a hyper_dmabuf_id and SGT for the DMA_BUF, which is registered to the
> +EXPORT list. Then, all pages for the SGT are extracted and each individual
> +page is shared via a hypervisor-specific memory sharing mechanism
> +(for example, in Xen this is grant-table).
> +
> +One important requirement on this memory sharing method is that it needs to
> +create a single integer value that represents the list of pages, which can
> +then be used by the importer for retrieving the group of shared pages. For
> +this, the “Backend” in the reference driver utilizes the multiple level
> +addressing mechanism.
> +
> +Once the integer reference to the list of pages is created, the exporter
> +builds the “export” command and sends it to the importer, then notifies the
> +importer.
> +
> +2. Importing
> +
> +The Import process is divided into two sections. One is the registration
> +of DMA_BUF from the exporter. The other is the actual mapping of the buffer
> +before accessing the data in the buffer. The former (termed “Registration”)
> +happens on an export event (that is, the export command with an interrupt)
> +in the exporter.
> +
> +The latter (termed “Mapping”) is done asynchronously when the driver gets the
> +IOCTL call from user space. When the importer gets an interrupt from the
> +exporter, it checks the command in the receiving queue and if it is an
> +“export” command, the registration process is started. It first finds
> +hyper_dmabuf_id and the integer reference for the shared pages, then stores
> +all of that information together with the “domain id” of the exporting domain
> +in the IMPORT LIST.
> +
> +In the case where “event-polling” is enabled (Kernel Config - Enable event-
> +generation and polling operation), a “new sharing available” event is
> +generated right after the reference info for the new shared DMA_BUF is
> +registered to the IMPORT LIST. This event is added to the event-queue.
> +
> +The user process that polls Hyper_DMABUF driver wakes up when this event-queue
> +is not empty and is able to read back event data from the queue using the
> +driver’s “Read” function. Once the user-application calls EXPORT_FD IOCTL with
> +the proper parameters including hyper_dmabuf_id, the Hyper_DMABUF driver
> +retrieves information about the matched DMA_BUF from the IMPORT LIST. Then, it
> +maps all pages shared (referenced by the integer reference) in its kernel
> +space and creates its own DMA_BUF referencing the same shared pages. After
> +this, it exports this new DMA_BUF to the other drivers with a file descriptor.
> +DMA_BUF can then be used just in the same way a local DMA_BUF is.
> +
> +3. Indirect Synchronization of DMA_BUF
> +
> +Synchronization of a DMA_BUF within a single OS is automatically achieved
> +because all of importer’s DMA_BUF operations are done using functions defined
> +on the exporter’s side, which means there is one central place that has full
> +control over the DMA_BUF. In other words, any primary activities such as
> +attaching/detaching and mapping/un-mapping are all captured by the exporter,
> +meaning that the exporter knows basic information such as who is using the
> +DMA_BUF and how it is being used. This, however, is not applicable if this
> +sharing is done beyond a single OS because kernel space (where the exporter’s
> +DMA_BUF operations reside) is simply not visible to the importing VM.
> +
> +Therefore, “indirect synchronization” was introduced as an alternative solution,
> +which is now implemented in the Hyper_DMABUF driver. This technique makes
> +the exporter create a shadow DMA_BUF when the end-consumer of the buffer maps
> +the DMA_BUF, then duplicates any DMA_BUF operations performed on
> +the importer’s side. Through this “indirect synchronization”, the exporter is
> +able to virtually track all activities done by the consumer (mostly reference
> +counter) as if those are done in exporter’s local system.
> +
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +Section 4. Hypervisor Backend Interface
> +------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +
> +The Hyper_DMABUF driver has a standard “Backend” structure that contains
> +mappings to various functions designed for a specific Hypervisor. Most of
> +these API functions should provide a low-level implementation of communication
> +and memory sharing capability that utilize a Hypervisor’s native mechanisms.
> +
> +struct hyper_dmabuf_backend_ops {
> + /* retreiving id of current virtual machine */
> + int (*get_vm_id)(void);
> + /* get pages shared via hypervisor-specific method */
> + int (*share_pages)(struct page **, int, int, void **);
> + /* make shared pages unshared via hypervisor specific method */
> + int (*unshare_pages)(void **, int);
> + /* map remotely shared pages on importer's side via
> + * hypervisor-specific method
> + */
> + struct page ** (*map_shared_pages)(int, int, int, void **);
> + /* unmap and free shared pages on importer's side via
> + * hypervisor-specific method
> + */
> + int (*unmap_shared_pages)(void **, int);
> + /* initialize communication environment */
> + int (*init_comm_env)(void);
> + /* destroy communication channel */
> + void (*destroy_comm)(void);
> + /* upstream ch setup (receiving and responding) */
> + int (*init_rx_ch)(int);
> + /* downstream ch setup (transmitting and parsing responses) */
> + int (*init_tx_ch)(int);
> + /* send msg via communication ch */
> + int (*send_req)(int, struct hyper_dmabuf_req *, int);
> +};
> +
> +<Hypervisor-specific Backend Structure>
> +
> +1. get_vm_id
> +
> + Returns the VM (domain) ID
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -ID of the current domain
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + None
> +
> +2. share_pages
> +
> + Get pages shared via hypervisor-specific method and return one reference
> + ID that represents the complete list of shared pages
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -Array of pages
> + -ID of importing VM
> + -Number of pages
> + -Hypervisor specific Representation of reference info of shared
> + pages
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + -Hypervisor specific integer value that represents all of
> + the shared pages
> +
> +3. unshare_pages
> +
> + Stop sharing pages
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -Hypervisor specific Representation of reference info of shared
> + pages
> + -Number of shared pages
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + 0
> +
> +4. map_shared_pages
> +
> + Map shared pages locally using a hypervisor-specific method
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -Reference number that represents all of shared pages
> + -ID of exporting VM, Number of pages
> + -Reference information for any purpose
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + -An array of shared pages (struct page**)
> +
> +5. unmap_shared_pages
> +
> + Unmap shared pages
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -Hypervisor specific Representation of reference info of shared pages
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + -0 (successful) or one of Standard Kernel errors
> +
> +6. init_comm_env
> +
> + Setup infrastructure needed for communication channel
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + None
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + None
> +
> +7. destroy_comm
> +
> + Cleanup everything done via init_comm_env
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + None
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + None
> +
> +8. init_rx_ch
> +
> + Configure receive channel
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -ID of VM on the other side of the channel
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + -0 (successful) or one of Standard Kernel errors
> +
> +9. init_tx_ch
> +
> + Configure transmit channel
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -ID of VM on the other side of the channel
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + -0 (success) or one of Standard Kernel errors
> +
> +10. send_req
> +
> + Send message to other VM
> +
> + Input:
> +
> + -ID of VM that receives the message
> + -Message
> +
> + Output:
> +
> + -0 (success) or one of Standard Kernel errors
> +
> +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
> +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
>

[1]
https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v4.16.1/source/include/xen/interface/io/kbdif.h

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