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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4] Protected FIFOs and regular files
On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 11:47 AM, Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org> wrote:
> On Tue, Feb 27, 2018 at 3:00 AM, Salvatore Mesoraca
> <s.mesoraca16@gmail.com> wrote:
>> Disallows open of FIFOs or regular files not owned by the user in world
>> writable sticky directories, unless the owner is the same as that of
>> the directory or the file is opened without the O_CREAT flag.
>> The purpose is to make data spoofing attacks harder.
>> This protection can be turned on and off separately for FIFOs and regular
>> files via sysctl, just like the symlinks/hardlinks protection.
>> This patch is based on Openwall's "HARDEN_FIFO" feature by Solar
>> Designer.
>>
>> This is a brief list of old vulnerabilities that could have been prevented
>> by this feature, some of them even allow for privilege escalation:
>> CVE-2000-1134
>> CVE-2007-3852
>> CVE-2008-0525
>> CVE-2009-0416
>> CVE-2011-4834
>> CVE-2015-1838
>> CVE-2015-7442
>> CVE-2016-7489
>>
>> This list is not meant to be complete. It's difficult to track down
>> all vulnerabilities of this kind because they were often reported
>> without any mention of this particular attack vector.
>> In fact, before hardlinks/symlinks restrictions, fifos/regular
>> files weren't the favorite vehicle to exploit them.
>>
>> Suggested-by: Solar Designer <solar@openwall.com>
>> Suggested-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
>> Signed-off-by: Salvatore Mesoraca <s.mesoraca16@gmail.com>
>> ---
>>
>> Notes:
>> Changes in v3:
>> - Fixed format string for uid_t that is unsigned
>> (suggested by Jann Horn).
>> Changes in v4:
>> - Some English fixes (suggested by Tobin C. Harding).
>> - The original patchset has been split to help this part
>> land upstream (suggested by Solar Designer).
>>
>> Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt | 36 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>> fs/namei.c | 61 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++---
>> include/linux/fs.h | 2 ++
>> kernel/sysctl.c | 18 +++++++++++++
>> 4 files changed, 114 insertions(+), 3 deletions(-)
>>
>> diff --git a/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt b/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
>> index 6c00c1e..819caf8 100644
>> --- a/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
>> +++ b/Documentation/sysctl/fs.txt
>> @@ -34,7 +34,9 @@ Currently, these files are in /proc/sys/fs:
>> - overflowgid
>> - pipe-user-pages-hard
>> - pipe-user-pages-soft
>> +- protected_fifos
>> - protected_hardlinks
>> +- protected_regular
>> - protected_symlinks
>> - suid_dumpable
>> - super-max
>> @@ -182,6 +184,24 @@ applied.
>>
>> ==============================================================
>>
>> +protected_fifos:
>> +
>> +The intent of this protection is to avoid unintentional writes to
>> +an attacker-controlled FIFO, where a program expected to create a regular
>> +file.
>> +
>> +When set to "0", writing to FIFOs is unrestricted.
>> +
>> +When set to "1" don't allow O_CREAT open on FIFOs that we don't own
>> +in world writable sticky directories, unless they are owned by the
>> +owner of the directory.
>> +
>> +When set to "2" it also applies to group writable sticky directories.
>> +
>> +This protection is based on the restrictions in Openwall.
>> +
>> +==============================================================
>> +
>> protected_hardlinks:
>>
>> A long-standing class of security issues is the hardlink-based
>> @@ -202,6 +222,22 @@ This protection is based on the restrictions in Openwall and grsecurity.
>>
>> ==============================================================
>>
>> +protected_regular:
>> +
>> +This protection is similar to protected_fifos, but it
>> +avoids writes to an attacker-controlled regular file, where a program
>> +expected to create one.
>> +
>> +When set to "0", writing to regular files is unrestricted.
>> +
>> +When set to "1" don't allow O_CREAT open on regular files that we
>> +don't own in world writable sticky directories, unless they are
>> +owned by the owner of the directory.
>> +
>> +When set to "2" it also applies to group writable sticky directories.
>> +
>> +==============================================================
>> +
>> protected_symlinks:
>>
>> A long-standing class of security issues is the symlink-based
>> diff --git a/fs/namei.c b/fs/namei.c
>> index 921ae32..eaab668 100644
>> --- a/fs/namei.c
>> +++ b/fs/namei.c
>> @@ -883,6 +883,8 @@ static inline void put_link(struct nameidata *nd)
>>
>> int sysctl_protected_symlinks __read_mostly = 0;
>> int sysctl_protected_hardlinks __read_mostly = 0;
>> +int sysctl_protected_fifos __read_mostly;
>> +int sysctl_protected_regular __read_mostly;
>>
>> /**
>> * may_follow_link - Check symlink following for unsafe situations
>> @@ -996,6 +998,54 @@ static int may_linkat(struct path *link)
>> return -EPERM;
>> }
>>
>> +/**
>> + * may_create_in_sticky - Check whether an O_CREAT open in a sticky directory
>> + * should be allowed, or not, on files that already
>> + * exist.
>> + * @dir: the sticky parent directory
>> + * @name: the file name
>> + * @inode: the inode of the file to open
>> + *
>> + * Block an O_CREAT open of a FIFO (or a regular file) when:
>> + * - sysctl_protected_fifos (or sysctl_protected_regular) is enabled
>> + * - the file already exists
>> + * - we are in a sticky directory
>> + * - we don't own the file
>> + * - the owner of the directory doesn't own the file
>> + * - the directory is world writable
>> + * If the sysctl_protected_fifos (or sysctl_protected_regular) is set to 2
>> + * the directory doesn't have to be world writable: being group writable will
>> + * be enough.
>> + *
>> + * Returns 0 if the open is allowed, -ve on error.
>> + */
>> +static int may_create_in_sticky(struct dentry * const dir,
>> + const unsigned char * const name,
>> + struct inode * const inode)
>> +{
>> + if ((!sysctl_protected_fifos && S_ISFIFO(inode->i_mode)) ||
>> + (!sysctl_protected_regular && S_ISREG(inode->i_mode)) ||
>> + likely(!(dir->d_inode->i_mode & S_ISVTX)) ||
>> + uid_eq(inode->i_uid, dir->d_inode->i_uid) ||
>> + uid_eq(current_fsuid(), inode->i_uid))
>> + return 0;
>> +
>> + if (likely(dir->d_inode->i_mode & 0002) ||
>> + (dir->d_inode->i_mode & 0020 &&
>> + ((sysctl_protected_fifos >= 2 && S_ISFIFO(inode->i_mode)) ||
>> + (sysctl_protected_regular >= 2 && S_ISREG(inode->i_mode))))) {
>> + pr_notice_ratelimited("denied writing in '%s' of %u.%u in a sticky directory by UID %u, EUID %u, process %s:%d.\n",
>> + name,
>> + from_kuid(&init_user_ns, inode->i_uid),
>> + from_kgid(&init_user_ns, inode->i_gid),
>> + from_kuid(&init_user_ns, current_uid()),
>> + from_kuid(&init_user_ns, current_euid()),
>> + current->comm, current->pid);
>
> Instead of this pr_notice_ratelimited(), I think
> audit_log_link_denied() should be refactored and used instead. Drop
> this line from this patch, and I think this is great as-is. The
> logging can be separate (as it may get heavily bike-shed, as I
> experienced with hard/symlink restrictions).
>
> Otherwise, I think this looks great.
>
> Acked-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

I've also tested this now; so:

Tested-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>

# grep . /proc/sys/fs/protected_*
/proc/sys/fs/protected_fifos:0
/proc/sys/fs/protected_hardlinks:1
/proc/sys/fs/protected_regular:0
/proc/sys/fs/protected_symlinks:1
# cd /tmp
# mkfifo fifo
# touch regular
# chown nobody fifo regular
# chmod a+w fifo regular
# chmod a+w regular
# cat fifo > output &
# su - keescook
$ cd /tmp
$ python
...
>>> import os
>>> fd = os.open("fifo", os.O_RDWR | os.O_CREAT)
>>> os.write(fd, "OHAI\n")
5
>>> fd = os.open("regular", os.O_RDWR | os.O_CREAT)
>>> os.write(fd, "OHAI\n")
5
>>> exit()
$ exit
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/fs/protected_fifos
# echo 1 > /proc/sys/fs/protected_regular
# su - keescook
$ cd /tmp
$ python
...
>>> import os
>>> fd = os.open("fifo", os.O_RDWR | os.O_CREAT)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
OSError: [Errno 13] Permission denied: 'fifo'
>>> fd = os.open("regular", os.O_RDWR | os.O_CREAT)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
OSError: [Errno 13] Permission denied: 'regular'

> I'll create a branch for this on git.kernel.org and see if anything
> surprising pops out. :)

Here it is with my suggested refactoring of the audit message:

https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/kees/linux.git/log/?h=kspp/userspace/protected-creat

Which produces:

[ 146.854080] audit: type=1703 audit(1519762816.978:95): op=fifo
ppid=3091 pid=3092 auid=0 uid=1000 gid=1000 euid=1000 suid=1000
fsuid=1000 egid=1000 sgid=1000 fsgid=1000 tty=pts8 ses=1 comm="python"
exe="/usr/bin/python2.7" res=0
[ 146.858691] audit: type=1302 audit(1519762816.978:95): item=0
name="/tmp/fifo" inode=531 dev=fd:01 mode=010666 ouid=65534 ogid=0
rdev=00:00 nametype=NORMAL cap_fp=0000000000000000
cap_fi=0000000000000000 cap_fe=0 cap_fver=0
...
[ 152.993518] audit: type=1703 audit(1519762823.117:96): op=regular
ppid=3091 pid=3092 auid=0 uid=1000 gid=1000 euid=1000 suid=1000
fsuid=1000 egid=1000 sgid=1000 fsgid=1000 tty=pts8 ses=1 comm="python"
exe="/usr/bin/python2.7" res=0
[ 152.997963] audit: type=1302 audit(1519762823.117:96): item=0
name="/tmp/regular" inode=700 dev=fd:01 mode=0100666 ouid=65534 ogid=0
rdev=00:00 nametype=NORMAL cap_fp=0000000000000000
cap_fi=0000000000000000 cap_fe=0 cap_fver=0

and other things (uid, etc)

-Kees

--
Kees Cook
Pixel Security

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