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SubjectRe: [tip:x86/boot] x86/boot/compressed/64: Prepare trampoline memory
On Mon, Feb 26, 2018 at 08:35:52AM +0100, Ingo Molnar wrote:
>
> * Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name> wrote:
>
> > +#if 0
> > /*
> > * Find a suitable spot for the trampoline.
> > * This code is based on reserve_bios_regions().
> > @@ -49,6 +50,9 @@ struct paging_config paging_prepare(void)
> > /* Place the trampoline just below the end of low memory, aligned to 4k */
> > paging_config.trampoline_start = bios_start - TRAMPOLINE_32BIT_SIZE;
> > paging_config.trampoline_start = round_down(paging_config.trampoline_start, PAGE_SIZE);
> > +#else
> > + paging_config.trampoline_start = 0x99000;
> > +#endif
>
> So if it's suspected to be 'Video BIOS undeclared RAM use' related then wouldn't a
> lower address be safer?

I tried to check if putting it into place where realtime trampoline
usually lands helps the situation. Apparently, not.

> Such as:
>
> paging_config.trampoline_start = 0x40000;
>
> or so?

Yeah, good idea.

Borislav, could you check this?

> Also, could do a puts() hexdump of the affected memory area _before_ we overwrite
> it? Is it empty? Could we add some debug warning that checks that it's all zeroes?

The problem is that we don't really have a way get a message out of there.

http://lkml.kernel.org/r/793b9c55-e85b-97b5-c857-dd8edcda4081@zytor.com

> I also kind of regret that this remained a single commit:
>
> 3 files changed, 120 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
>
> this should be split up further:
>
> - one patch that adds trampoline space to the kernel image
> - one patch that calculates the trampoline address and prints the address
> - one or two patch that does the functional changes
> - (any more split-up you can think of - early boot code is very fragile!)

Okay, I'll look into it.

But without a way to print address it's still a black box.

> It will be painful to rebase x86/mm but I think it's unavoidable at this stage.
>
> There's also a few other things I don't like in paging_prepare():
>
> 1)
>
> /* Check if LA57 is desired and supported */
> if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_X86_5LEVEL) && native_cpuid_eax(0) >= 7 &&
> (native_cpuid_ecx(7) & (1 << (X86_FEATURE_LA57 & 31))))
> paging_config.l5_required = 1;
>
> ... it isn't explained why this feature CPU check is so complex.

We check that the CPUID leaf is supported and than check the feature
itself.

Maybe the first check is redundant, but I tried to be safe here.

> 2)
>
> + /* Place the trampoline just below the end of low memory, aligned to 4k */
> + paging_config.trampoline_start = bios_start - TRAMPOLINE_32BIT_SIZE;
> + paging_config.trampoline_start = round_down(paging_config.trampoline_start, PAGE_SIZE);
>
> placing trampolines just below or just above BIOS images is fragile. Instead a
> better heuristic is to use the "middle" of suspected available RAM and work from
> there.

It's not obvious what is lower end of available memory here. Any hints?

Realtime trampoline is allocated with top-down approach and I tried to
mimic the approach here.

> 3)
>
> + /* Clear trampoline memory first */
> + memset(trampoline, 0, TRAMPOLINE_32BIT_SIZE);
>
> Memory bootup state is typically all zeroes (except maybe for kexec), so this
> should check that what it's clearing doesn't contain any data.

Hm. I don't see why would we expect this. Do we really have guarantee that
bootloader would not mess with the memory?

> It should probably also clear this memory _after_ use.

After use I tired to restore the original content of the memory.
See cleanup_trampoline(). That looks safer to me.

> 4)
>
> + /*
> + * Set up a new page table that will be used for switching from 4-
> + * to 5-level paging or vice versa. In other cases trampoline
> + * wouldn't touch CR3.
> + *
> + * For 4- to 5-level paging transition, set up current CR3 as the
> + * first and the only entry in a new top-level page table.
> + *
> + * For 5- to 4-level paging transition, copy page table pointed by
> + * first entry in the current top-level page table as our new
> + * top-level page table. We just cannot point to the page table
> + * from trampoline as it may be above 4G.
> + */
> + if (paging_config.l5_required) {
> + trampoline[TRAMPOLINE_32BIT_PGTABLE_OFFSET] = __native_read_cr3() + _PAGE_TABLE_NOENC;
> + } else if (native_read_cr4() & X86_CR4_LA57) {
> + unsigned long src;
> +
> + src = *(unsigned long *)__native_read_cr3() & PAGE_MASK;
> + memcpy(trampoline + TRAMPOLINE_32BIT_PGTABLE_OFFSET / sizeof(unsigned long),
> + (void *)src, PAGE_SIZE);
> + }
>
> Why '+ _PAGE_TABLE_NOENC', while not ' |' ?

It shouldn't really matter, but yeah, '|' is more appropriate.

> Also, it isn't clear what is where at this stage and it would be helpful to add
> comments explaining the general purpose.
>
> There's also two main objects here:
>
> - the mode switching code trampoline
> - the trampoline pagetable
>
> it's not clear from this code where is which - and the naming isn't overly clear
> either: is '*trampoline' the code, or the pagetable, or both?

Okay, I'll do my best explaining this.

> We need to re-do this as we have now run into _exactly_ the kind of difficult to
> debug bug that I was worried about when I insisted on the many iterations of this
> patch-set...
>
> Thanks,
>
> Ingo

--
Kirill A. Shutemov

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