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SubjectRe: [tip:x86/pti] x86/speculation: Use IBRS if available before calling into firmware

On Mon, 2018-02-12 at 11:29 +0530, afzal mohammed wrote:
> Hi,
> On Sun, Feb 11, 2018 at 11:19:10AM -0800, tip-bot for David Woodhouse wrote:
> >
> > x86/speculation: Use IBRS if available before calling into firmware
> >
> > Retpoline means the kernel is safe because it has no indirect branches.
> > But firmware isn't, so use IBRS for firmware calls if it's available.
> afaui, so only retpoline means still mitigation not enough.
> Also David W has mentioned [1] that even with retpoline, IBPB is also
> required (except Sky Lake).

Retpoline is sufficient to protect the *kernel*, which is the biggest
target. (Except on Skylake, where IBRS is the only full mitigation and
people are still working trying to come up with a "good enough"
mitigation that isn't IBRS.)

On all CPUs, you need IBPB to protect userspace processes from each
other, although since it's slow we don't actually *do* that for every
context switch; only when switching to non-dumpable processes.

That IBPB requirement for protecting userspace is true even on the next
generation of CPUs with the "Enhanced IBRS" (IBRS_ALL) feature. It only
goes away in CPUs which are even *further* in the future, when Intel
manage to fix it completely in hardware. They haven't even documented
the feature bit they're going to advertise to indicate that fix yet!

> If IBPB & IBRS is not supported by ucode, shouldn't the below indicate
> some thing on the lines of Mitigation not enough ?
> >
> > - return sprintf(buf, "%s%s%s\n", spectre_v2_strings[spectre_v2_enabled],
> > + return sprintf(buf, "%s%s%s%s\n", spectre_v2_strings[spectre_v2_enabled],
> >          boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_USE_IBPB) ? ", IBPB" : "",
> > +        boot_cpu_has(X86_FEATURE_USE_IBRS_FW) ? ", IBRS_FW" : "",
> >          spectre_v2_module_string());
> On 4.16-rc1, w/ GCC 7.3.0,
> /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/meltdown:Mitigation: PTI
> /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/spectre_v1:Mitigation: __user pointer sanitization
> /sys/devices/system/cpu/vulnerabilities/spectre_v2:Mitigation: Full generic retpoline
> Here for the user (at least for me), it is not clear whether the
> mitigation is enough. In the present system (Ivy Bridge), as ucode
> update is not available, IBPB is not printed along with
> "spectre_v2:Mitigation", so unless i am missing something, till then
> this system should be considered vulnerable, but for a user not
> familiar with details of the issue, it cannot be deduced.
> Perhaps an additional status field [OKAY,PARTIAL] to Mitigation in
> sysfs might be helpful. All these changes are in the air for me, this
> is from a user perspective, sorry if my feedback seems idiotic.

Given that we only do it for non-dumpable processes, it's *always*
going to be only partial. (Although I think Thomas was looking at a
command line option to  make that happen on every context switch?)

And on Skylake the current plan is that strictly speaking it would also
be partial.

I understand the concern, but I'm not sure that there's much we can do
to improve it. If it says "Mitigation:" that's generally OK, and if it
says anything else, it's not.
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