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SubjectRe: [PATCH 3/3] rcutorture/nolibc: add a bit of documentation to explain how to use nolibc
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On 12/29/18 7:58 AM, Willy Tarreau wrote:
> Ingo rightfully asked for a bit more documentation in the nolibc header,
> so this patch adds some explanation about its purpose, how it's made, and
> how to use it.
>
> Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
> Cc: Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
> Signed-off-by: Willy Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>

Hi Willy,

This is a good summary IMO. Thanks.
And it's in good shape -- doesn't *require* any fixes.
But if you do make any changes to it, here are a few suggestions. :)


> ---
> tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/nolibc.h | 90 +++++++++++++++++++++----
> 1 file changed, 78 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
>
> diff --git a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/nolibc.h b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/nolibc.h
> index 985364c..20d15a6 100644
> --- a/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/nolibc.h
> +++ b/tools/testing/selftests/rcutorture/bin/nolibc.h
> @@ -3,6 +3,84 @@
> * Copyright (C) 2017-2018 Willy Tarreau <w@1wt.eu>
> */
>
> +/*
> + * This file is designed to be used as a libc alternative for minimal programs
> + * with very limited requirements. It consists of a small number of syscall and
> + * types definitions, and the minimal startup code needed to call main().

type

> + * All syscalls are declared as static functions so that they can be optimized
> + * away by the compiler when not used.
> + *
> + * Syscalls are split between 3 levels :

Instead of "between", use either "among" or "into". and then "levels:".

> + * - the lower level is the arch-specific syscall() definition, consisting in
> + * assembly code in compound expressions. These ones are called

Apparently "these ones" is acceptable in UK English, not so in US English.
I don't like it, but we do accept UK English here. :)

> + * my_syscall0() to my_syscall6() depending on the number of arguments. The
> + * MIPS implementation is limited to 5 arguments. All input arguments are
> + * cast to a long stored in a register. These expressions always return the
> + * syscall's return value as a signed long value which is often either a
> + * pointer or the negated errno value.
> + *
> + * - the second level is mostly architecture-independent. It is made of
> + * static functions called sys_<name>() which rely on my_syscallN()
> + * depending on the syscall definition. These functions are responsible
> + * for exposing the appropriate types for the syscall arguments (int,
> + * pointers, etc) and for setting the appropriate return type (often int).
> + * A few of them are architecture-specific because the syscalls are not all
> + * mapped exactly the same between architecture. For example, some archs do
> + * not implement select() and need pselect6() instead, so the sys_select()
> + * function will have to abstract this.
> + *
> + * - the third level is the libc call definition. It exposes the lower raw
> + * sys_<name>() calls in a way that looks like what a libc usually does,
> + * takes care of specific input values, and of setting errno upon error.
> + * There can be minor variations compared to standard libc calls. For
> + * example the open() call always takes 3 args here.
> + *
> + * The errno variable is declared static and unused. This way it can be
> + * optimized away if not used. However this means that a program made of
> + * multiple C files may observe different errno values (one per C file). For
> + * the type of programs this project targets it usually is not a problem. The
> + * resulting program may even be reduced by defining the NOLIBC_IGNORE_ERRNO
> + * macro, in which case the errno value will never be assigned.
> + *
> + * Some stdint-like integer types are defined. These ones are valid on all

These are valid on all
(or not :)

> + * currently supported architecture, because signs are enforced, ints are
> + * assumed to be 32 bits, longs the size of a pointer and long long 64 bits.
> + * If more architectures have to be supported, this may need to be adapted.
> + *
> + * Some macro definitions like the O_* values passed to open(), and some
> + * structures like the sys_stat struct depend on the architecture.
> + *
> + * The definitions start with the architecture-specific parts, which are picked
> + * based on what the compiler knows about the target architecture, and are
> + * completed with the generic code. Since it is the compiler which sets the
> + * target architecture, cross-compiling normally works out of the box without
> + * having to specify anything.
> + *
> + * Finally some very common libc-level functions are provided. It is the case
> + * for a few functions usually found in string.h, ctype.h, or stdlib.h. Nothing
> + * is currently provided regarding stdio emulation.
> + *
> + * The macro NOLIBC is always defined, so that it is possible for a program to
> + * check this macro to know if it is being built against and decide to disable
> + * some features or simply not to include some standard libc files.
> + *
> + * Ideally this file should be split in multiple files for easier long term
> + * maintenance, but provided as a single file as it is now, it's quite
> + * convenient to use. Maybe some variations involving a set of includes at the
> + * top could work.
> + *
> + * A simple static executable may be built this way :
> + * $ gcc -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fno-ident -s -Os -nostdlib \
> + * -static -include nolibc.h -lgcc -o hello hello.c
> + *
> + * A very useful calling convention table may be found here :
> + * http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man2/syscall.2.html
> + *
> + * This doc is quite convenient though not necessarily up to date :
> + * https://w3challs.com/syscalls/
> + *
> + */
> +
> /* some archs (at least aarch64) don't expose the regular syscalls anymore by
> * default, either because they have an "_at" replacement, or because there are
> * more modern alternatives. For now we'd rather still use them.
> @@ -19,18 +97,6 @@
>
> #define NOLIBC
>
> -/* Build a static executable this way :
> - * $ gcc -fno-asynchronous-unwind-tables -fno-ident -s -Os -nostdlib \
> - * -static -include nolibc.h -lgcc -o hello hello.c
> - *
> - * Useful calling convention table found here :
> - * http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man2/syscall.2.html
> - *
> - * This doc is even better :
> - * https://w3challs.com/syscalls/
> - */
> -
> -
> /* this way it will be removed if unused */
> static int errno;
>
>

ciao. thanks.
--
~Randy

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