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SubjectRe: [PATCH v4 1/3] arm64: implement ftrace with regs
Hi Torsten,

On 26 October 2018 at 16:21, Torsten Duwe <duwe@lst.de> wrote:
> Use -fpatchable-function-entry (gcc8) to add 2 NOPs at the beginning
> of each function. Replace the first NOP thus generated with a quick LR
> saver (move it to scratch reg x9), so the 2nd replacement insn, the call
> to ftrace, does not clobber the value. Ftrace will then generate the
> standard stack frames.
>
> Note that patchable-function-entry in GCC disables IPA-RA, which means
> ABI register calling conventions are obeyed *and* scratch registers
> such as x9 are available.
>
> Introduce and handle an ftrace_regs_trampoline for module PLTs, right
> after ftrace_trampoline, and double the size of this special section
> if .text.ftrace_trampoline is present in the module.
>
> Signed-off-by: Torsten Duwe <duwe@suse.de>
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/Kconfig
> +++ b/arch/arm64/Kconfig
> @@ -110,6 +110,8 @@ config ARM64
> select HAVE_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK
> select HAVE_DMA_CONTIGUOUS
> select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
> + select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS \
> + if $(cc-option,-fpatchable-function-entry=2)
> select HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS
> select HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
> select HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
> --- a/arch/arm64/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm64/Makefile
> @@ -78,6 +78,10 @@ ifeq ($(CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS),y)
> KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE += -T $(srctree)/arch/arm64/kernel/module.lds
> endif
>
> +ifeq ($(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS),y)
> + CC_FLAGS_FTRACE := -fpatchable-function-entry=2
> +endif
> +
> # Default value
> head-y := arch/arm64/kernel/head.o
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h
> @@ -16,6 +16,19 @@
> #define MCOUNT_ADDR ((unsigned long)_mcount)
> #define MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE AARCH64_INSN_SIZE
>
> +/*
> + * DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS is implemented by adding 2 NOPs at the beginning
> + * of each function, with the second NOP actually calling ftrace. In contrary
> + * to a classic _mcount call, the call instruction to be modified is thus
> + * the second one, and not the only one.
> + */
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> +#define ARCH_SUPPORTS_FTRACE_OPS 1
> +#define REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET AARCH64_INSN_SIZE
> +#else
> +#define REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET 0
> +#endif
> +
> #ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
> #include <linux/compat.h>
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile
> @@ -7,9 +7,9 @@ CPPFLAGS_vmlinux.lds := -DTEXT_OFFSET=$(
> AFLAGS_head.o := -DTEXT_OFFSET=$(TEXT_OFFSET)
> CFLAGS_armv8_deprecated.o := -I$(src)
>
> -CFLAGS_REMOVE_ftrace.o = -pg
> -CFLAGS_REMOVE_insn.o = -pg
> -CFLAGS_REMOVE_return_address.o = -pg
> +CFLAGS_REMOVE_ftrace.o = -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
> +CFLAGS_REMOVE_insn.o = -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
> +CFLAGS_REMOVE_return_address.o = -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
>
> # Object file lists.
> arm64-obj-y := debug-monitors.o entry.o irq.o fpsimd.o \
> --- a/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
> +++ b/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
> @@ -11,7 +11,8 @@ cflags-$(CONFIG_X86) += -m$(BITS) -D__K
> -fPIC -fno-strict-aliasing -mno-red-zone \
> -mno-mmx -mno-sse -fshort-wchar
>
> -cflags-$(CONFIG_ARM64) := $(subst -pg,,$(KBUILD_CFLAGS)) -fpie
> +cflags-$(CONFIG_ARM64) := $(filter-out -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)\
> + ,$(KBUILD_CFLAGS)) -fpie
> cflags-$(CONFIG_ARM) := $(subst -pg,,$(KBUILD_CFLAGS)) \
> -fno-builtin -fpic -mno-single-pic-base
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S
> @@ -13,6 +13,8 @@
> #include <asm/assembler.h>
> #include <asm/ftrace.h>
> #include <asm/insn.h>
> +#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
> +#include <asm/assembler.h>
>
> /*
> * Gcc with -pg will put the following code in the beginning of each function:
> @@ -123,6 +125,7 @@ skip_ftrace_call: // }
> ENDPROC(_mcount)
>
> #else /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> +#ifndef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> /*
> * _mcount() is used to build the kernel with -pg option, but all the branch
> * instructions to _mcount() are replaced to NOP initially at kernel start up,
> @@ -162,6 +165,114 @@ ftrace_graph_call: // ftrace_graph_cal
>
> mcount_exit
> ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
> +#else /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS */
> +
> +/*
> + * Since no -pg or similar compiler flag is used, there should really be
> + * no reference to _mcount; so do not define one. Only some value for
> + * MCOUNT_ADDR is needed for comparison. Let it point here to have some
> + * sort of magic value that can be recognised when debugging.
> + */
> + .global _mcount
> +_mcount:
> + ret /* make it differ from regs caller */
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_regs_caller)
> + /* callee's preliminary stack frame: */
> + stp fp, x9, [sp, #-16]!

Does the 'fp' alias for x29 work with older assemblers? I guess it
does not matter gor GCC 8+ code, but be careful when you rewrite
existing stuff.

> + mov fp, sp
> +
> + /* our stack frame: */
> + stp fp, lr, [sp, #-S_FRAME_SIZE]!

If sizeof(struct pt_regs) == S_FRAME_SIZE), you should subtract 16
additional bytes here

stp fp, lr, [sp, #-(S_FRAME_SIZE + 16)]!

> + add x9, sp, #16 /* offset to pt_regs */
> +
... since that is the offset you use here

> + stp x10, x11, [x9, #S_X10]
> + stp x12, x13, [x9, #S_X12]
> + stp x14, x15, [x9, #S_X14]
> + stp x16, x17, [x9, #S_X16]
> + stp x18, x19, [x9, #S_X18]
> + stp x20, x21, [x9, #S_X20]
> + stp x22, x23, [x9, #S_X22]
> + stp x24, x25, [x9, #S_X24]
> + stp x26, x27, [x9, #S_X26]
> +
> + b ftrace_common
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_regs_caller)
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_caller)
> + /* callee's preliminary stack frame: */
> + stp fp, x9, [sp, #-16]!
> + mov fp, sp
> +
> + /* our stack frame: */
> + stp fp, lr, [sp, #-S_FRAME_SIZE]!
> + add x9, sp, #16 /* offset to pt_regs */

Same here

> +
> +ftrace_common:
> + /*
> + * At this point we have 2 new stack frames, and x9 pointing
> + * at a pt_regs which we can populate as needed.
> + */
> +
> + /* save function arguments */
> + stp x0, x1, [x9]
> + stp x2, x3, [x9, #S_X2]
> + stp x4, x5, [x9, #S_X4]
> + stp x6, x7, [x9, #S_X6]
> + stp x8, x9, [x9, #S_X8]
> +

x9 is not a function argument, and if it were, you'd have clobbered it
by now. Please use a single 'str' and store x8 only

> + ldr x0, [fp]
> + stp x28, x0, [x9, #S_X28] /* FP in pt_regs + "our" x28 */
> +
> + /* The program counter just after the ftrace call site */
> + str lr, [x9, #S_PC]
> + /* The stack pointer as it was on ftrace_caller entry... */
> + add x28, fp, #16
> + str x28, [x9, #S_SP]
> + /* The link Register at callee entry */
> + ldr x28, [fp, 8]
> + str x28, [x9, #S_LR] /* to pt_regs.r[30] */
> +
> + ldr_l x2, function_trace_op, x0
> + ldr x1, [fp, #8]
> + sub x0, lr, #8 /* function entry == IP */
> + mov x3, x9 /* pt_regs are @x9 */
> +
> + mov fp, sp
> +
> + .global ftrace_call
> +ftrace_call:
> +
> + bl ftrace_stub
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> + .global ftrace_graph_call
> +ftrace_graph_call: // ftrace_graph_caller();
> + nop // If enabled, this will be replaced
> + // "b ftrace_graph_caller"
> +#endif
> +
> +ftrace_common_return:
> + add x9, sp, #16 /* advance to pt_regs for restore */
> +
> + ldp x0, x1, [x9]
> + ldp x2, x3, [x9, #S_X2]
> + ldp x4, x5, [x9, #S_X4]
> + ldp x6, x7, [x9, #S_X6]
> + ldp x8, x9, [x9, #S_X8]
> +

Same as above. It also deserves a mention that you are relying on the
absence of IPA-RA, and so x9..x18 are guaranteed to be dead at
function entry, and so they don't need to be restored here.

> + ldp x28, fp, [x9, #S_X28]
> +
> + ldr lr, [x9, #S_LR]
> + ldr x9, [x9, #S_PC]
> + /* clean up both frames, ours and callee preliminary */
> + add sp, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE + 16
> +
> + ret x9
> +
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
> +
> +#endif /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS */
> #endif /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
>
> ENTRY(ftrace_stub)
> @@ -197,12 +308,21 @@ ENDPROC(ftrace_stub)
> * and run return_to_handler() later on its exit.
> */
> ENTRY(ftrace_graph_caller)
> +#ifndef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> mcount_get_lr_addr x0 // pointer to function's saved lr
> mcount_get_pc x1 // function's pc
> mcount_get_parent_fp x2 // parent's fp
> bl prepare_ftrace_return // prepare_ftrace_return(&lr, pc, fp)
>
> mcount_exit
> +#else
> + add x9, sp, #16 /* advance to pt_regs to gather args */
> + add x0, x9, #S_LR /* &lr */
> + ldr x1, [x9, #S_PC] /* pc */
> + ldr x2, [x9, #S_STACKFRAME] /* fp */
> + bl prepare_ftrace_return
> + b ftrace_common_return
> +#endif
> ENDPROC(ftrace_graph_caller)
>
> /*
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c
> @@ -65,18 +65,61 @@ int ftrace_update_ftrace_func(ftrace_fun
> return ftrace_modify_code(pc, 0, new, false);
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> +static int install_ftrace_trampoline(struct module *mod, unsigned long *addr)
> +{
> + struct plt_entry trampoline, *mod_trampoline;
> + trampoline = get_plt_entry(*addr);
> +
> + if (*addr == FTRACE_ADDR)
> + mod_trampoline = mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
> + else if (*addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR)
> + mod_trampoline = mod->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline;

Could we do something like

if (*addr == FTRACE_ADDR)
mod_trampoline = &mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline[0];
else if (*addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR)
mod_trampoline = &mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline[1];

and get rid of the additional struct field and pointer?

> + else
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> + if (!plt_entries_equal(mod_trampoline, &trampoline)) {
> +
> + /* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
> + module_disable_ro(mod);
> + *mod_trampoline = trampoline;
> + module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> +
> + /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> + smp_wmb();
> + }
> + *addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod_trampoline;
> +
> + return 0;
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> +/*
> + * Ftrace with regs generates the tracer calls as close as possible to
> + * the function entry; no stack frame has been set up at that point.
> + * In order to make another call e.g to ftrace_caller, the LR must be
> + * saved from being overwritten.
> + * Between two functions, and with IPA-RA turned off, the scratch registers
> + * are available, so move the LR to x9 before calling into ftrace.
> + * "mov x9, lr" is officially aliased from "orr x9, xzr, lr".
> + */
> +#define QUICK_LR_SAVE aarch64_insn_gen_logical_shifted_reg( \
> + AARCH64_INSN_REG_9, AARCH64_INSN_REG_ZR, \
> + AARCH64_INSN_REG_LR, 0, AARCH64_INSN_VARIANT_64BIT, \
> + AARCH64_INSN_LOGIC_ORR)
> +
> /*
> * Turn on the call to ftrace_caller() in instrumented function
> */
> int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
> {
> - unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> + int ret;
> u32 old, new;
> long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
>
> if (offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M) {
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> - struct plt_entry trampoline;
> struct module *mod;
>
> /*
> @@ -96,54 +139,65 @@ int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *
> if (WARN_ON(!mod))
> return -EINVAL;
>
> - /*
> - * There is only one ftrace trampoline per module. For now,
> - * this is not a problem since on arm64, all dynamic ftrace
> - * invocations are routed via ftrace_caller(). This will need
> - * to be revisited if support for multiple ftrace entry points
> - * is added in the future, but for now, the pr_err() below
> - * deals with a theoretical issue only.
> - */
> - trampoline = get_plt_entry(addr);
> - if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> - &trampoline)) {
> - if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> - &(struct plt_entry){})) {
> - pr_err("ftrace: far branches to multiple entry points unsupported inside a single module\n");
> - return -EINVAL;
> - }
> -
> - /* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
> - module_disable_ro(mod);
> - *mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline = trampoline;
> - module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> -
> - /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> - smp_wmb();
> + /* Check against our well-known list of ftrace entry points */
> + if (addr == FTRACE_ADDR || addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR) {
> + ret = install_ftrace_trampoline(mod, &addr);
> + if (ret < 0)
> + return ret;
> }
> - addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
> + else
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> #else /* CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS */
> return -EINVAL;
> #endif /* CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS */
> }
>
> old = aarch64_insn_gen_nop();
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS)) {
> + new = QUICK_LR_SAVE;
> + ret = ftrace_modify_code(pc - AARCH64_INSN_SIZE,
> + old, new, true);
> + if (ret)
> + return ret;
> + }
> new = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, addr, AARCH64_INSN_BRANCH_LINK);
>
> return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, true);
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> +int ftrace_modify_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long old_addr,
> + unsigned long addr)
> +{
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> + u32 old, new;
> +
> + old = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, old_addr, true);
> + new = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, addr, true);
> +
> + return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, true);
> +}
> +#endif
> +
> /*
> * Turn off the call to ftrace_caller() in instrumented function
> */
> int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod, struct dyn_ftrace *rec,
> unsigned long addr)
> {
> - unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> bool validate = true;
> + int ret;
> u32 old = 0, new;
> long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
>
> + /* -fpatchable-function-entry= does not generate a profiling call
> + * initially; the NOPs are already there.
> + */
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS) && addr == MCOUNT_ADDR)
> + return 0;
> +
> if (offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M) {
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> u32 replaced;
> @@ -188,7 +242,15 @@ int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,
>
> new = aarch64_insn_gen_nop();
>
> - return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, validate);
> + ret = ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, validate);
> + if (ret)
> + return ret;
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS)) {
> + old = QUICK_LR_SAVE;
> + ret = ftrace_modify_code(pc - AARCH64_INSN_SIZE,
> + old, new, true);
> + }
> + return ret;
> }
>
> void arch_ftrace_update_code(int command)
> --- a/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
> +++ b/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
> @@ -115,6 +115,7 @@
> #define MCOUNT_REC() . = ALIGN(8); \
> __start_mcount_loc = .; \
> KEEP(*(__mcount_loc)) \
> + KEEP(*(__patchable_function_entries)) \
> __stop_mcount_loc = .;
> #else
> #define MCOUNT_REC()
> --- a/include/linux/compiler_types.h
> +++ b/include/linux/compiler_types.h
> @@ -61,8 +61,12 @@ extern void __chk_io_ptr(const volatile
> #if defined(CC_USING_HOTPATCH) && !defined(__CHECKER__)
> #define notrace __attribute__((hotpatch(0,0)))
> #else
> +#if defined(CONFIG_ARM64) && defined(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS)
> +#define notrace __attribute__((patchable_function_entry(0)))
> +#else
> #define notrace __attribute__((no_instrument_function))
> #endif
> +#endif
>
> /* Intel compiler defines __GNUC__. So we will overwrite implementations
> * coming from above header files here
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h
> @@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ struct mod_arch_specific {
>
> /* for CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> struct plt_entry *ftrace_trampoline;
> + struct plt_entry *ftrace_regs_trampoline;
> };
> #endif
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/module.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/module.c
> @@ -452,8 +452,11 @@ int module_finalize(const Elf_Ehdr *hdr,
> apply_alternatives_module((void *)s->sh_addr, s->sh_size);
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE) &&
> - !strcmp(".text.ftrace_trampoline", secstrs + s->sh_name))
> + !strcmp(".text.ftrace_trampoline", secstrs + s->sh_name)) {
> me->arch.ftrace_trampoline = (void *)s->sh_addr;
> + me->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline =
> + (void *)(s->sh_addr + sizeof(struct plt_entry));
> + }
> #endif
> }
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c
> @@ -272,7 +272,7 @@ int module_frob_arch_sections(Elf_Ehdr *
> tramp->sh_type = SHT_NOBITS;
> tramp->sh_flags = SHF_EXECINSTR | SHF_ALLOC;
> tramp->sh_addralign = __alignof__(struct plt_entry);
> - tramp->sh_size = sizeof(struct plt_entry);
> + tramp->sh_size = 2 * sizeof(struct plt_entry);
> }
>
> return 0;

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