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Subject[PATCH 6/8] lib/lzo: implement run-length encoding
Date
When using zram, we frequently encounter long runs of zero bytes.
This adds a special case which identifies runs of zeros and encodes
them using run-length encoding.

This is faster for both compression and decompresion. For
high-entropy data which doesn't hit this case, impact is minimal.

Compression ratio is within a few percent in all cases.

This modifies the bitstream in a way which is backwards compatible
(i.e., we can decompress old bitstreams, but old versions of lzo
cannot decompress new bitstreams).

Link: http://lkml.kernel.org/r/20181127161913.23863-7-dave.rodgman@arm.com
Signed-off-by: Dave Rodgman <dave.rodgman@arm.com>
Cc: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
Cc: Greg Kroah-Hartman <gregkh@linuxfoundation.org>
Cc: Herbert Xu <herbert@gondor.apana.org.au>
Cc: Markus F.X.J. Oberhumer <markus@oberhumer.com>
Cc: Matt Sealey <matt.sealey@arm.com>
Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan@kernel.org>
Cc: Nitin Gupta <nitingupta910@gmail.com>
Cc: Richard Purdie <rpurdie@openedhand.com>
Cc: Sergey Senozhatsky <sergey.senozhatsky.work@gmail.com>
Cc: Sonny Rao <sonnyrao@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>
Signed-off-by: Stephen Rothwell <sfr@canb.auug.org.au>
---
Documentation/lzo.txt | 35 +++++++++---
include/linux/lzo.h | 2 +-
lib/lzo/lzo1x_compress.c | 98 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
lib/lzo/lzo1x_decompress_safe.c | 75 +++++++++++++++++--------
lib/lzo/lzodefs.h | 12 +++-
5 files changed, 180 insertions(+), 42 deletions(-)

diff --git a/Documentation/lzo.txt b/Documentation/lzo.txt
index 6fa6a93d0949..306c60344ca7 100644
--- a/Documentation/lzo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/lzo.txt
@@ -78,16 +78,30 @@ Description
is an implementation design choice independent on the algorithm or
encoding.

+Versions
+
+0: Original version
+1: LZO-RLE
+
+Version 1 of LZO implements an extension to encode runs of zeros using run
+length encoding. This improves speed for data with many zeros, which is a
+common case for zram. This modifies the bitstream in a backwards compatible way
+(v1 can correctly decompress v0 compressed data, but v0 cannot read v1 data).
+
Byte sequences
==============

First byte encoding::

- 0..17 : follow regular instruction encoding, see below. It is worth
- noting that codes 16 and 17 will represent a block copy from
- the dictionary which is empty, and that they will always be
+ 0..16 : follow regular instruction encoding, see below. It is worth
+ noting that code 16 will represent a block copy from the
+ dictionary which is empty, and that it will always be
invalid at this place.

+ 17 : bitstream version. If the first byte is 17, the next byte
+ gives the bitstream version. If the first byte is not 17,
+ the bitstream version is 0.
+
18..21 : copy 0..3 literals
state = (byte - 17) = 0..3 [ copy <state> literals ]
skip byte
@@ -140,6 +154,11 @@ Byte sequences
state = S (copy S literals after this block)
End of stream is reached if distance == 16384

+ In version 1, this instruction is also used to encode a run of zeros if
+ distance = 0xbfff, i.e. H = 1 and the D bits are all 1.
+ In this case, it is followed by a fourth byte, X.
+ run length = ((X << 3) | (0 0 0 0 0 L L L)) + 4.
+
0 0 1 L L L L L (32..63)
Copy of small block within 16kB distance (preferably less than 34B)
length = 2 + (L ?: 31 + (zero_bytes * 255) + non_zero_byte)
@@ -165,7 +184,9 @@ Authors
=======

This document was written by Willy Tarreau <w@1wt.eu> on 2014/07/19 during an
- analysis of the decompression code available in Linux 3.16-rc5. The code is
- tricky, it is possible that this document contains mistakes or that a few
- corner cases were overlooked. In any case, please report any doubt, fix, or
- proposed updates to the author(s) so that the document can be updated.
+ analysis of the decompression code available in Linux 3.16-rc5, and updated
+ by Dave Rodgman <dave.rodgman@arm.com> on 2018/10/30 to introduce run-length
+ encoding. The code is tricky, it is possible that this document contains
+ mistakes or that a few corner cases were overlooked. In any case, please
+ report any doubt, fix, or proposed updates to the author(s) so that the
+ document can be updated.
diff --git a/include/linux/lzo.h b/include/linux/lzo.h
index 2ae27cb89927..547a86c71e1b 100644
--- a/include/linux/lzo.h
+++ b/include/linux/lzo.h
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
#define LZO1X_1_MEM_COMPRESS (8192 * sizeof(unsigned short))
#define LZO1X_MEM_COMPRESS LZO1X_1_MEM_COMPRESS

-#define lzo1x_worst_compress(x) ((x) + ((x) / 16) + 64 + 3)
+#define lzo1x_worst_compress(x) ((x) + ((x) / 16) + 64 + 3 + 2)

/* This requires 'wrkmem' of size LZO1X_1_MEM_COMPRESS */
int lzo1x_1_compress(const unsigned char *src, size_t src_len,
diff --git a/lib/lzo/lzo1x_compress.c b/lib/lzo/lzo1x_compress.c
index 82fb5571ce5e..fa8d4ff38531 100644
--- a/lib/lzo/lzo1x_compress.c
+++ b/lib/lzo/lzo1x_compress.c
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
static noinline size_t
lzo1x_1_do_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
unsigned char *out, size_t *out_len,
- size_t ti, void *wrkmem)
+ size_t ti, void *wrkmem, signed char *state_offset)
{
const unsigned char *ip;
unsigned char *op;
@@ -38,24 +38,82 @@ lzo1x_1_do_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
const unsigned char *m_pos;
size_t t, m_len, m_off;
u32 dv;
+ u32 run_length = 0;
literal:
ip += 1 + ((ip - ii) >> 5);
next:
if (unlikely(ip >= ip_end))
break;
dv = get_unaligned_le32(ip);
- t = ((dv * 0x1824429d) >> (32 - D_BITS)) & D_MASK;
- m_pos = in + dict[t];
- dict[t] = (lzo_dict_t) (ip - in);
- if (unlikely(dv != get_unaligned_le32(m_pos)))
- goto literal;
+
+ if (dv == 0) {
+ const unsigned char *ir = ip + 4;
+ const unsigned char *limit = ip_end
+ < (ip + MAX_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH + 1)
+ ? ip_end : ip + MAX_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH + 1;
+#if defined(CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS) && \
+ defined(LZO_FAST_64BIT_MEMORY_ACCESS)
+ u64 dv64;
+
+ for (; (ir + 32) <= limit; ir += 32) {
+ dv64 = get_unaligned((u64 *)ir);
+ dv64 |= get_unaligned((u64 *)ir + 1);
+ dv64 |= get_unaligned((u64 *)ir + 2);
+ dv64 |= get_unaligned((u64 *)ir + 3);
+ if (dv64)
+ break;
+ }
+ for (; (ir + 8) <= limit; ir += 8) {
+ dv64 = get_unaligned((u64 *)ir);
+ if (dv64) {
+# if defined(__LITTLE_ENDIAN)
+ ir += __builtin_ctzll(dv64) >> 3;
+# elif defined(__BIG_ENDIAN)
+ ir += __builtin_clzll(dv64) >> 3;
+# else
+# error "missing endian definition"
+# endif
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+#else
+ while ((ir < (const unsigned char *)
+ ALIGN((uintptr_t)ir, 4)) &&
+ (ir < limit) && (*ir == 0))
+ ir++;
+ for (; (ir + 4) <= limit; ir += 4) {
+ dv = *((u32 *)ir);
+ if (dv) {
+# if defined(__LITTLE_ENDIAN)
+ ir += __builtin_ctz(dv) >> 3;
+# elif defined(__BIG_ENDIAN)
+ ir += __builtin_clz(dv) >> 3;
+# else
+# error "missing endian definition"
+# endif
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+#endif
+ while (likely(ir < limit) && unlikely(*ir == 0))
+ ir++;
+ run_length = ir - ip;
+ if (run_length > MAX_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH)
+ run_length = MAX_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH;
+ } else {
+ t = ((dv * 0x1824429d) >> (32 - D_BITS)) & D_MASK;
+ m_pos = in + dict[t];
+ dict[t] = (lzo_dict_t) (ip - in);
+ if (unlikely(dv != get_unaligned_le32(m_pos)))
+ goto literal;
+ }

ii -= ti;
ti = 0;
t = ip - ii;
if (t != 0) {
if (t <= 3) {
- op[-2] |= t;
+ op[*state_offset] |= t;
COPY4(op, ii);
op += t;
} else if (t <= 16) {
@@ -86,6 +144,17 @@ lzo1x_1_do_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
}
}

+ if (unlikely(run_length)) {
+ ip += run_length;
+ run_length -= MIN_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH;
+ put_unaligned_le32((run_length << 21) | 0xfffc18
+ | (run_length & 0x7), op);
+ op += 4;
+ run_length = 0;
+ *state_offset = -3;
+ goto finished_writing_instruction;
+ }
+
m_len = 4;
{
#if defined(CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS) && defined(LZO_USE_CTZ64)
@@ -168,7 +237,6 @@ lzo1x_1_do_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,

m_off = ip - m_pos;
ip += m_len;
- ii = ip;
if (m_len <= M2_MAX_LEN && m_off <= M2_MAX_OFFSET) {
m_off -= 1;
*op++ = (((m_len - 1) << 5) | ((m_off & 7) << 2));
@@ -205,6 +273,9 @@ lzo1x_1_do_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
*op++ = (m_off << 2);
*op++ = (m_off >> 6);
}
+ *state_offset = -2;
+finished_writing_instruction:
+ ii = ip;
goto next;
}
*out_len = op - out;
@@ -219,6 +290,12 @@ int lzo1x_1_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
unsigned char *op = out;
size_t l = in_len;
size_t t = 0;
+ signed char state_offset = -2;
+
+ // LZO v0 will never write 17 as first byte,
+ // so this is used to version the bitstream
+ *op++ = 17;
+ *op++ = LZO_VERSION;

while (l > 20) {
size_t ll = l <= (M4_MAX_OFFSET + 1) ? l : (M4_MAX_OFFSET + 1);
@@ -227,7 +304,8 @@ int lzo1x_1_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
break;
BUILD_BUG_ON(D_SIZE * sizeof(lzo_dict_t) > LZO1X_1_MEM_COMPRESS);
memset(wrkmem, 0, D_SIZE * sizeof(lzo_dict_t));
- t = lzo1x_1_do_compress(ip, ll, op, out_len, t, wrkmem);
+ t = lzo1x_1_do_compress(ip, ll, op, out_len,
+ t, wrkmem, &state_offset);
ip += ll;
op += *out_len;
l -= ll;
@@ -240,7 +318,7 @@ int lzo1x_1_compress(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
if (op == out && t <= 238) {
*op++ = (17 + t);
} else if (t <= 3) {
- op[-2] |= t;
+ op[state_offset] |= t;
} else if (t <= 18) {
*op++ = (t - 3);
} else {
diff --git a/lib/lzo/lzo1x_decompress_safe.c b/lib/lzo/lzo1x_decompress_safe.c
index aa95d3066b7d..b8f88d5ea3ff 100644
--- a/lib/lzo/lzo1x_decompress_safe.c
+++ b/lib/lzo/lzo1x_decompress_safe.c
@@ -46,11 +46,23 @@ int lzo1x_decompress_safe(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
const unsigned char * const ip_end = in + in_len;
unsigned char * const op_end = out + *out_len;

+ unsigned char bitstream_version;
+
op = out;
ip = in;

if (unlikely(in_len < 3))
goto input_overrun;
+
+ if (likely(*ip == 17)) {
+ bitstream_version = ip[1];
+ ip += 2;
+ if (unlikely(in_len < 5))
+ goto input_overrun;
+ } else {
+ bitstream_version = 0;
+ }
+
if (*ip > 17) {
t = *ip++ - 17;
if (t < 4) {
@@ -151,32 +163,49 @@ int lzo1x_decompress_safe(const unsigned char *in, size_t in_len,
m_pos -= next >> 2;
next &= 3;
} else {
- m_pos = op;
- m_pos -= (t & 8) << 11;
- t = (t & 7) + (3 - 1);
- if (unlikely(t == 2)) {
- size_t offset;
- const unsigned char *ip_last = ip;
+ NEED_IP(2);
+ next = get_unaligned_le16(ip);
+ if (((next & 0xfffc) == 0xfffc) &&
+ ((t & 0xf8) == 0x18) &&
+ likely(bitstream_version)) {
+ NEED_IP(3);
+ t &= 7;
+ t |= ip[2] << 3;
+ t += MIN_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH;
+ NEED_OP(t);
+ memset(op, 0, t);
+ op += t;
+ next &= 3;
+ ip += 3;
+ goto match_next;
+ } else {
+ m_pos = op;
+ m_pos -= (t & 8) << 11;
+ t = (t & 7) + (3 - 1);
+ if (unlikely(t == 2)) {
+ size_t offset;
+ const unsigned char *ip_last = ip;

- while (unlikely(*ip == 0)) {
- ip++;
- NEED_IP(1);
- }
- offset = ip - ip_last;
- if (unlikely(offset > MAX_255_COUNT))
- return LZO_E_ERROR;
+ while (unlikely(*ip == 0)) {
+ ip++;
+ NEED_IP(1);
+ }
+ offset = ip - ip_last;
+ if (unlikely(offset > MAX_255_COUNT))
+ return LZO_E_ERROR;

- offset = (offset << 8) - offset;
- t += offset + 7 + *ip++;
- NEED_IP(2);
+ offset = (offset << 8) - offset;
+ t += offset + 7 + *ip++;
+ NEED_IP(2);
+ next = get_unaligned_le16(ip);
+ }
+ ip += 2;
+ m_pos -= next >> 2;
+ next &= 3;
+ if (m_pos == op)
+ goto eof_found;
+ m_pos -= 0x4000;
}
- next = get_unaligned_le16(ip);
- ip += 2;
- m_pos -= next >> 2;
- next &= 3;
- if (m_pos == op)
- goto eof_found;
- m_pos -= 0x4000;
}
TEST_LB(m_pos);
#if defined(CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS)
diff --git a/lib/lzo/lzodefs.h b/lib/lzo/lzodefs.h
index 06fa83a38e0a..682359058b3c 100644
--- a/lib/lzo/lzodefs.h
+++ b/lib/lzo/lzodefs.h
@@ -13,6 +13,12 @@
*/


+/* Version
+ * 0: original lzo version
+ * 1: lzo with support for RLE
+ */
+#define LZO_VERSION 1
+
#define COPY4(dst, src) \
put_unaligned(get_unaligned((const u32 *)(src)), (u32 *)(dst))
#if defined(CONFIG_X86_64) || defined(CONFIG_ARM64)
@@ -31,6 +37,7 @@
#elif defined(CONFIG_X86_64) || defined(CONFIG_ARM64)
#define LZO_USE_CTZ64 1
#define LZO_USE_CTZ32 1
+#define LZO_FAST_64BIT_MEMORY_ACCESS
#elif defined(CONFIG_X86) || defined(CONFIG_PPC)
#define LZO_USE_CTZ32 1
#elif defined(CONFIG_ARM)
@@ -45,7 +52,7 @@
#define M1_MAX_OFFSET 0x0400
#define M2_MAX_OFFSET 0x0800
#define M3_MAX_OFFSET 0x4000
-#define M4_MAX_OFFSET 0xbfff
+#define M4_MAX_OFFSET 0xbffe

#define M1_MIN_LEN 2
#define M1_MAX_LEN 2
@@ -61,6 +68,9 @@
#define M3_MARKER 32
#define M4_MARKER 16

+#define MIN_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH 4
+#define MAX_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH (2047 + MIN_ZERO_RUN_LENGTH)
+
#define lzo_dict_t unsigned short
#define D_BITS 13
#define D_SIZE (1u << D_BITS)
--
2.17.1
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