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Subject[RFC PATCH V2 01/11] Documentation: Added EPT Subpage Protection Documentation.
Date
Signed-off-by: Zhang Yi <yi.z.zhang@linux.intel.com>
---
Documentation/virtual/kvm/spp_design_kvm.txt | 275 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 file changed, 275 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/virtual/kvm/spp_design_kvm.txt

diff --git a/Documentation/virtual/kvm/spp_design_kvm.txt b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/spp_design_kvm.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8dc4530
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/virtual/kvm/spp_design_kvm.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,275 @@
+DRAFT: EPT-Based Sub-Page Protection (SPP) Design Doc for KVM
+=============================================================
+
+1. Overview
+
+EPT-based Sub-Page Protection (SPP) capability to allow Virtual Machine
+Monitors to specify write-protection for guest physical memory at a
+sub-page (128 byte) granularity. When this capability is utilized, the
+CPU enforces write-access permissions for sub-page regions of 4K pages
+as specified by the VMM.
+
+2. Operation of SPP
+
+Sub-Page Protection Table (SPPT) is introduced to manage sub-page
+write-access.
+
+SPPT is active when the "sub-page write protection" VM-execution control
+is 1. SPPT looks up the guest physical addresses to derive a 64 bit
+"sub-page permission" value containing sub-page write permissions. The
+lookup from guest-physical addresses to the sub-page region permissions
+is determined by a set of SPPT paging structures.
+
+When the "sub-page write protection" VM-execution control is 1, the SPPT
+is used to lookup write permission bits for the 128 byte sub-page regions
+containing in the 4KB guest physical page. EPT specifies the 4KB page
+level privileges that software is allowed when accessing the guest
+physical address, whereas SPPT defines the write permissions for software
+at the 128 byte granularity regions within a 4KB page. Write accesses
+prevented due to sub-page permissions looked up via SPPT are reported as
+EPT violation VM exits. Similar to EPT, a logical processor uses SPPT to
+lookup sub-page region write permissions for guest-physical addresses
+only when those addresses are used to access memory.
+______________________________________________________________________________
+
+How SPP hardware works:
+______________________________________________________________________________
+
+Guest write access --> GPA --> Walk EPT --> EPT leaf entry -┐
+┌-----------------------------------------------------------┘
+└-> if VMexec_control.spp && ept_leaf_entry.spp_bit (bit 61)
+ |
+ └-> <false> --> EPT legacy behavior
+ |
+ |
+ └-> <true> --> if ept_leaf_entry.writable
+ |
+ └-> <true> --> Ignore SPP
+ |
+ └-> <false> --> GPA --> Walk SPP 4-level table--┐
+ |
+┌------------<----------get-the-SPPT-point-from-VMCS-filed-----<------┘
+|
+Walk SPP L4E table
+|
+└┐--> entry misconfiguration ------------>----------┐<----------------┐
+ | | |
+else | |
+ | | |
+ | ┌------------------SPP VMexit<-----------------┘ |
+ | | |
+ | └-> exit_qualification & sppt_misconfig --> sppt misconfig |
+ | | |
+ | └-> exit_qualification & sppt_miss --> sppt miss |
+ └--┐ |
+ | |
+walk SPPT L3E--┐--> if-entry-misconfiguration------------>------------┘
+ | |
+ else |
+ | |
+ | |
+ walk SPPT L2E --┐--> if-entry-misconfiguration-------->-------┘
+ | |
+ else |
+ | |
+ | |
+ walk SPPT L1E --┐-> if-entry-misconfiguration--->----┘
+ |
+ else
+ |
+ └-> if sub-page writable
+ └-> <true> allow, write access
+ └-> <false> disallow, EPT violation
+______________________________________________________________________________
+
+3. Interfaces
+
+* Feature enabling
+
+Add "spp=on" to KVM module parameter to enable SPP feature, default is off.
+
+* Get/Set sub-page write access permission
+
+New KVM ioctl:
+
+`KVM_SUBPAGES_GET_ACCESS`:
+Get sub-pages write access bitmap corresponding to given rang of continuous gfn.
+
+`KVM_SUBPAGES_SET_ACCESS`
+Set sub-pages write access bitmap corresponding to given rang of continuous gfn.
+
+```c
+/* for KVM_SUBPAGES_GET_ACCESS and KVM_SUBPAGES_SET_ACCESS */
+struct kvm_subpage_info {
+ __u64 gfn;
+ __u64 npages; /* number of 4K pages */
+ __u64 *access_map; /* sub-page write-access bitmap array */
+};
+
+#define KVM_SUBPAGES_GET_ACCESS _IOR(KVMIO, 0x49, struct kvm_subpage_info)
+#define KVM_SUBPAGES_SET_ACCESS _IOW(KVMIO, 0x4a, struct kvm_subpage_info)
+```
+
+4. SPPT initialization
+
+* SPPT root page allocation
+
+ SPPT is referenced via a 64-bit control field called "sub-page
+ protection table pointer" (SPPTP, encoding 0x2030) which contains a
+ 4K-align physical address.
+
+ SPPT also has 4 level table as well as EPT. So, as EPT does, when KVM
+ loads mmu, we allocate a root page for SPPT L4 table.
+
+* EPT leaf entry SPP bit
+
+ Set 0 to SPP bit to close SPP by default.
+
+5. Set/Get Sub-Page access bitmap for bunch of guest physical pages
+
+* To utilize SPP feature, system admin should Set a Sub-page access write via
+ SPP KVM ioctl `KVM_SUBPAGES_SET_ACCESS`, which will prepared the flowing things.
+
+ (1.Got the corresponding EPT leaf entry via the guest physical address.
+ (2.If it is a 4K page frame, flag the bit 61 to enable subpage protection on this page.
+ (3.Setup spp page structure, the page structure format is list following.
+
+ Format of the SPPT L4E, L3E, L2E:
+ | Bit | Contents |
+ | :----- | :------------------------------------------------------------------------|
+ | 0 | Valid entry when set; indicates whether the entry is present |
+ | 11:1 | Reserved (0) |
+ | N-1:12 | Physical address of 4KB aligned SPPT LX-1 Table referenced by this entry |
+ | 51:N | Reserved (0) |
+ | 63:52 | Reserved (0) |
+ Note: N is the physical address width supported by the processor. X is the page level
+
+ Format of the SPPT L1E:
+ | Bit | Contents |
+ | :---- | :---------------------------------------------------------------- |
+ | 0+2i | Write permission for i-th 128 byte sub-page region. |
+ | 1+2i | Reserved (0). |
+ Note: `0<=i<=31`
+
+ (4.Update the subpage info into memory slot structure.
+
+* Sub-page write access bitmap setting pseudo-code:
+
+```c
+static int kvm_mmu_set_subpages(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu,
+ struct kvm_subpage_info *spp_info)
+{
+ gfn_t *gfns = spp_info->gfns;
+ u64 *access_map = spp_info->access_map;
+
+ sanity_check();
+
+ /* SPP works when the page is unwritable */
+ if (set_ept_leaf_level_unwritable(gfn) == success)
+
+ if (kvm_mmu_setup_spp_structure(gfn) == success)
+
+ set_subpage_slot_info(access_map);
+
+}
+```
+
+User could get the subpage info via SPP KVM ioctl `KVM_SUBPAGES_GET_ACCESS`,
+which from the memory slot structure corresponding the specify gpa.
+
+* Sub-page get subpage info pseudo-code:
+
+```c
+static int kvm_mmu_get_subpages(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu,
+ struct kvm_subpage_info *spp_info)
+{
+ gfn_t *gfns = spp_info->gfns;
+
+ sanity_check(gfn);
+ spp_info = get_subpage_slot_info(gfn);
+}
+
+```
+
+5. SPPT-induced vmexits
+
+* SPP VM exits
+
+Accesses using guest physical addresses may cause VM exits due to a SPPT
+Misconfiguration or a SPPT Miss.
+
+A SPPT Misconfiguration vmexit occurs when, in the course of translating
+a guest physical address, the logical processor encounters a leaf EPT
+paging-structure entry mapping a 4KB page, with SPP enabled, during the
+SPPT lookup, a SPPT paging-structure entry contains an unsupported
+value.
+
+A SPPT Miss vmexit occurs during the SPPT lookup there is no SPPT
+misconfiguration but any level of SPPT paging-structure entries are not
+present.
+
+NOTE. SPPT misconfigurations and SPPT miss can occur only due to an
+attempt to write memory with a guest physical address.
+
+* EPT violation vmexits due to SPPT
+
+EPT violations due to memory write accesses disallowed due to sub-page
+protection permissions specified in the SPPT are reported via EPT
+violation VM exits.
+
+6. SPPT-induced vmexits handling
+
+```c
+#define EXIT_REASON_SPP 66
+
+static int (*const kvm_vmx_exit_handlers[])(struct kvm_vcpu *vcpu) = {
+ ...
+ [EXIT_REASON_SPP] = handle_spp,
+ ...
+};
+```
+
+New exit qualification for SPPT-induced vmexits.
+
+| Bit | Contents |
+| :---- | :---------------------------------------------------------------- |
+| 10:0 | Reserved (0). |
+| 11 | SPPT VM exit type. Set for SPPT Miss, cleared for SPPT Misconfig. |
+| 12 | NMI unblocking due to IRET |
+| 63:13 | Reserved (0) |
+
+In addition to the exit qualification, Guest Linear Address and Guest
+Physical Address fields will be reported.
+
+* SPPT miss and misconfiguration
+
+Allocate a page for the SPPT entry and set the entry correctly.
+
+
+SPP VMexit handler Pseudo-code:
+```c
+static int handle_spp(kvm_vcpu *vcpu)
+{
+ exit_qualification = vmcs_readl(EXIT_QUALIFICATION);
+ if (exit_qualification & SPP_EXIT_TYPE_BIT) {
+ /* SPPT Miss */
+ /* We don't set SPP write access for the corresponding
+ * GPA, leave it unwritable, so no need to construct
+ * SPP table here. */
+ } else {
+ /* SPPT Misconfig */
+ vcpu->run->exit_reason = KVM_EXIT_UNKNOWN;
+ vcpu->run->hw.hardware_exit_reason = EXIT_REASON_SPP;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+```
+
+* EPT violation vmexits due to SPPT
+
+While hardware walking the SPP page table, If the sub-page region write
+permission bit is set, the write is allowed, else the write is disallowed
+and results in an EPT violation.
+
+we need peek this case in EPT volition handler, and trigger a user-space
+exit, return the write protected address(GPA) to user(qemu).
--
2.7.4
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