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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2] x86_64, vmcoreinfo: Append 'page_offset_base' to vmcoreinfo
Hi Boris,

Thanks for your review. Please see my replies inline:

On Wed, Nov 21, 2018 at 5:10 PM Borislav Petkov <bp@alien8.de> wrote:
>
> + Kees.
>
> On Fri, Nov 16, 2018 at 03:17:49AM +0530, Bhupesh Sharma wrote:
> > x86_64 kernel uses 'page_offset_base' variable to point to the
> > start of direct mapping of all physical memory. This variable
> > is also updated for KASLR boot cases, so this can be exported
> > via vmcoreinfo as a standard ABI between kernel and user-space,
> > to allow user-space utilities to use the same for calculating
> > the start of direct mapping of all physical memory.
> >
> > 'arch/x86/kernel/head64.c' sets the same as:
> > unsigned long page_offset_base __ro_after_init = __PAGE_OFFSET_BASE_L4;
> >
> > and also uses the same to indicate the base of KASLR regions on x86_64:
> > static __initdata struct kaslr_memory_region {
> > unsigned long *base;
> > unsigned long size_tb;
> > } kaslr_regions[] = {
> > { &page_offset_base, 0 },
> > .. snip ..
>
> Why is that detail needed in the commit message?

This (and similar) details were requested by Baoquan during the v1
review, that is why I added them to the v2 commit log.
Although personally I also think that such details are probably not
needed in a commit log (may be better suited for a cover letter, which
is maybe a overkill for this single patch).
Will drop this from v3.

> > Adding 'page_offset_base' to the vmcoreinfo can be specially useful for
> > live-debugging of a running kernel via user-space utilities
> > like makedumpfile (see [1]).
> >
> > Recently, I saw an issue with the 'makedumpfile' utility (see [2] for
>
> Use passive tone in your commit message: no "we" or "I", etc.

Ok.

> Also, pls read section "2) Describe your changes" in
> Documentation/process/submitting-patches.rst.

Ok.

> > details), whose live debugging feature is broken with newer kernels
> > (I tested the same with 4.19-rc8+ kernel), as KCORE_REMAP segments were
> > added to kcore, thus leading to an additional sections in the same, and
> > makedumpfile is not longer able to determine the start of direct
> > mapping of all physical memory, as it relies on traversing the PT_LOAD
> > segments inside kcore and using the last PT_LOAD segment
> > to determine the start of direct mapping.
> >
> > Such user-space issues can be resolved if the user-space code instead
> > uses a standard ABI to read the kernel exposed machine specific
> > variables. With the kernel commit 23c85094fe1895caefdd
> > ["proc/kcore: add vmcoreinfo note to /proc/kcore"]), it is
>
> ERROR: Please use git commit description style 'commit <12+ chars of sha1> ("<title line>")' - ie: 'commit 23c85094fe18 ("proc/kcore: add vmcoreinfo note to /proc/kcore")'
> #54:
> variables. With the kernel commit 23c85094fe1895caefdd

Ok.

> > now possible to use the vmcoreinfo present inside kcore as the standard
> > ABI which can be used by the user-space utilities for reading
> > the machine specific information (and hence for debugging a
> > live kernel).
> >
> > User-space utilities like makedumpfile, kexec-tools and crash
> > are either already using this ABI or are discussing patches
> > which look to add the same feature. This helps in simplifying the
> > overall code and also in reducing code-rewrite across the
> > user-space utilities for getting values of these kernel
> > symbols/variables.
>
> > Accordingly this patch allows appending 'page_offset_base' for
> > x86_64 platforms to vmcoreinfo, so that user-space tools can use the
> > same as a standard interface to determine the start of direct mapping
> > of all physical memory.
> >
> > Testing:
> > -------
> > - I tested this patch (rebased on 'linux-next') on a x86_64 machine
> > using the modified 'makedumpfile' user-space code (see [3] for my
> > github tree which contains the same) for determining how many pages
> > are dumpable when different dump_level is specified (which is
> > one use-case of live-debugging via 'makedumpfile').
> > - I tested both the KASLR and non-KASLR boot cases with this patch.
> > - Here is one sample log (for KASLR boot case) on my x86_64 machine:
> >
> > < snip..>
> > The kernel doesn't support mmap(),read() will be used instead.
> >
> > TYPE PAGES EXCLUDABLE DESCRIPTION
> > ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> > ZERO 21299 yes Pages filled
> > with zero
> > NON_PRI_CACHE 91785 yes Cache
> > pages without private flag
> > PRI_CACHE 1 yes Cache pages with
> > private flag
> > USER 14057 yes User process
> > pages
> > FREE 740346 yes Free pages
> > KERN_DATA 58152 no Dumpable kernel
> > data
> >
> > page size: 4096
> > Total pages on system: 925640
> > Total size on system: 3791421440 Byte
> >
> > [1]. MAN pages -> MAKEDUMPFILE(8) and CRASH(8)
> > [2]. makedumpfile issue with latest kernels -> http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/kexec/2018-October/021769.html
> > [3]. https://github.com/bhupesh-sharma/makedumpfile/tree/add-page-offset-base-to-vmcore-v1
> >
> > Cc: Boris Petkov <bp@alien8.de>
> > Cc: Baoquan He <bhe@redhat.com>
> > Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
> > Cc: Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
> > Cc: Kazuhito Hagio <k-hagio@ab.jp.nec.com>
> > Cc: Dave Anderson <anderson@redhat.com>
> > Cc: James Morse <james.morse@arm.com>
> > Cc: Omar Sandoval <osandov@fb.com>
> > Cc: x86@kernel.org
> > Cc: kexec@lists.infradead.org
> > Cc: linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org
> > Signed-off-by: Bhupesh Sharma <bhsharma@redhat.com>
> > ---
> > Changes since v1:
> > - Fixed the build issue reported by build bot and tested this version
> > with 'make allmodconfig'.
> > - Reworded most of the commit log to explain the intent behind the
> > patch.
> >
> > arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c | 3 +++
> > 1 file changed, 3 insertions(+)
> >
> > diff --git a/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c b/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c
> > index 4c8acdfdc5a7..6161d77c5bfb 100644
> > --- a/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c
> > +++ b/arch/x86/kernel/machine_kexec_64.c
> > @@ -356,6 +356,9 @@ void arch_crash_save_vmcoreinfo(void)
> > VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(init_top_pgt);
> > vmcoreinfo_append_str("NUMBER(pgtable_l5_enabled)=%d\n",
> > pgtable_l5_enabled());
> > +#ifdef CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_BASE
> > + VMCOREINFO_NUMBER(page_offset_base);
> > +#endif
> >
> > #ifdef CONFIG_NUMA
> > VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(node_data);
> > --
>
> All above are only nitpicks though.

Right the above are mostly nitpicks, but useful ones, so I will
address these in the v3.

> My opinion is this: people are exporting all kinds of kernel-internal
> stuff in vmcoreinfo and frankly, I'm not crazy about this idea.
>
> And AFAICT, this thing basically bypasses KASLR completely but you need
> root for it so it probably doesn't really matter.
>
> Now, on another thread we agreed more or less that what gets exported in
> vmcoreinfo is so tightly coupled to the running kernel so that it is not
> even considered an ABI. I guess that is debatable but whatever.

I understand.

> So my only request right now would be to have all those things being
> exported, documented somewhere and I believe Lianbo is working on that.

I will work with Lianbo to get this added to his documentation patch as well.

> But I'm sure others will have more to say about it.

Sure, I will wait for a couple of days more and then send out a v3 and
also make sure that
this variable being export'ed also gets added to the overall documentation patch
which Lianbo is creating.

Regards,
Bhupesh

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