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SubjectRe: [PATCH v11 00/24] kasan: add software tag-based mode for arm64
On Mon, Nov 19, 2018 at 6:26 PM, Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com> wrote:
> This patchset adds a new software tag-based mode to KASAN [1].
> (Initially this mode was called KHWASAN, but it got renamed,
> see the naming rationale at the end of this section).
>
> The plan is to implement HWASan [2] for the kernel with the incentive,
> that it's going to have comparable to KASAN performance, but in the same
> time consume much less memory, trading that off for somewhat imprecise
> bug detection and being supported only for arm64.
>
> The underlying ideas of the approach used by software tag-based KASAN are:
>
> 1. By using the Top Byte Ignore (TBI) arm64 CPU feature, we can store
> pointer tags in the top byte of each kernel pointer.
>
> 2. Using shadow memory, we can store memory tags for each chunk of kernel
> memory.
>
> 3. On each memory allocation, we can generate a random tag, embed it into
> the returned pointer and set the memory tags that correspond to this
> chunk of memory to the same value.
>
> 4. By using compiler instrumentation, before each memory access we can add
> a check that the pointer tag matches the tag of the memory that is being
> accessed.
>
> 5. On a tag mismatch we report an error.
>
> With this patchset the existing KASAN mode gets renamed to generic KASAN,
> with the word "generic" meaning that the implementation can be supported
> by any architecture as it is purely software.
>
> The new mode this patchset adds is called software tag-based KASAN. The
> word "tag-based" refers to the fact that this mode uses tags embedded into
> the top byte of kernel pointers and the TBI arm64 CPU feature that allows
> to dereference such pointers. The word "software" here means that shadow
> memory manipulation and tag checking on pointer dereference is done in
> software. As it is the only tag-based implementation right now, "software
> tag-based" KASAN is sometimes referred to as simply "tag-based" in this
> patchset.
>
> A potential expansion of this mode is a hardware tag-based mode, which would
> use hardware memory tagging support (announced by Arm [3]) instead of
> compiler instrumentation and manual shadow memory manipulation.
>
> Same as generic KASAN, software tag-based KASAN is strictly a debugging
> feature.
>
> [1] https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/dev-tools/kasan.html
>
> [2] http://clang.llvm.org/docs/HardwareAssistedAddressSanitizerDesign.html
>
> [3] https://community.arm.com/processors/b/blog/posts/arm-a-profile-architecture-2018-developments-armv85a
>
>
> ====== Rationale
>
> On mobile devices generic KASAN's memory usage is significant problem. One
> of the main reasons to have tag-based KASAN is to be able to perform a
> similar set of checks as the generic one does, but with lower memory
> requirements.
>
> Comment from Vishwath Mohan <vishwath@google.com>:
>
> I don't have data on-hand, but anecdotally both ASAN and KASAN have proven
> problematic to enable for environments that don't tolerate the increased
> memory pressure well. This includes,
> (a) Low-memory form factors - Wear, TV, Things, lower-tier phones like Go,
> (c) Connected components like Pixel's visual core [1].
>
> These are both places I'd love to have a low(er) memory footprint option at
> my disposal.
>
> Comment from Evgenii Stepanov <eugenis@google.com>:
>
> Looking at a live Android device under load, slab (according to
> /proc/meminfo) + kernel stack take 8-10% available RAM (~350MB). KASAN's
> overhead of 2x - 3x on top of it is not insignificant.
>
> Not having this overhead enables near-production use - ex. running
> KASAN/KHWASAN kernel on a personal, daily-use device to catch bugs that do
> not reproduce in test configuration. These are the ones that often cost
> the most engineering time to track down.
>
> CPU overhead is bad, but generally tolerable. RAM is critical, in our
> experience. Once it gets low enough, OOM-killer makes your life miserable.
>
> [1] https://www.blog.google/products/pixel/pixel-visual-core-image-processing-and-machine-learning-pixel-2/
>
>
> ====== Technical details
>
> Software tag-based KASAN mode is implemented in a very similar way to the
> generic one. This patchset essentially does the following:
>
> 1. TCR_TBI1 is set to enable Top Byte Ignore.
>
> 2. Shadow memory is used (with a different scale, 1:16, so each shadow
> byte corresponds to 16 bytes of kernel memory) to store memory tags.
>
> 3. All slab objects are aligned to shadow scale, which is 16 bytes.
>
> 4. All pointers returned from the slab allocator are tagged with a random
> tag and the corresponding shadow memory is poisoned with the same value.
>
> 5. Compiler instrumentation is used to insert tag checks. Either by
> calling callbacks or by inlining them (CONFIG_KASAN_OUTLINE and
> CONFIG_KASAN_INLINE flags are reused).
>
> 6. When a tag mismatch is detected in callback instrumentation mode
> KASAN simply prints a bug report. In case of inline instrumentation,
> clang inserts a brk instruction, and KASAN has it's own brk handler,
> which reports the bug.
>
> 7. The memory in between slab objects is marked with a reserved tag, and
> acts as a redzone.
>
> 8. When a slab object is freed it's marked with a reserved tag.
>
> Bug detection is imprecise for two reasons:
>
> 1. We won't catch some small out-of-bounds accesses, that fall into the
> same shadow cell, as the last byte of a slab object.
>
> 2. We only have 1 byte to store tags, which means we have a 1/256
> probability of a tag match for an incorrect access (actually even
> slightly less due to reserved tag values).
>
> Despite that there's a particular type of bugs that tag-based KASAN can
> detect compared to generic KASAN: use-after-free after the object has been
> allocated by someone else.
>
>
> ====== Testing
>
> Some kernel developers voiced a concern that changing the top byte of
> kernel pointers may lead to subtle bugs that are difficult to discover.
> To address this concern deliberate testing has been performed.
>
> It doesn't seem feasible to do some kind of static checking to find
> potential issues with pointer tagging, so a dynamic approach was taken.
> All pointer comparisons/subtractions have been instrumented in an LLVM
> compiler pass and a kernel module that would print a bug report whenever
> two pointers with different tags are being compared/subtracted (ignoring
> comparisons with NULL pointers and with pointers obtained by casting an
> error code to a pointer type) has been used. Then the kernel has been
> booted in QEMU and on an Odroid C2 board and syzkaller has been run.
>
> This yielded the following results.
>
> The two places that look interesting are:
>
> is_vmalloc_addr in include/linux/mm.h
> is_kernel_rodata in mm/util.c
>
> Here we compare a pointer with some fixed untagged values to make sure
> that the pointer lies in a particular part of the kernel address space.
> Since tag-based KASAN doesn't add tags to pointers that belong to rodata
> or vmalloc regions, this should work as is. To make sure debug checks to
> those two functions that check that the result doesn't change whether
> we operate on pointers with or without untagging has been added.
>
> A few other cases that don't look that interesting:
>
> Comparing pointers to achieve unique sorting order of pointee objects
> (e.g. sorting locks addresses before performing a double lock):
>
> tty_ldisc_lock_pair_timeout in drivers/tty/tty_ldisc.c
> pipe_double_lock in fs/pipe.c
> unix_state_double_lock in net/unix/af_unix.c
> lock_two_nondirectories in fs/inode.c
> mutex_lock_double in kernel/events/core.c
>
> ep_cmp_ffd in fs/eventpoll.c
> fsnotify_compare_groups fs/notify/mark.c
>
> Nothing needs to be done here, since the tags embedded into pointers
> don't change, so the sorting order would still be unique.
>
> Checks that a pointer belongs to some particular allocation:
>
> is_sibling_entry in lib/radix-tree.c
> object_is_on_stack in include/linux/sched/task_stack.h
>
> Nothing needs to be done here either, since two pointers can only belong
> to the same allocation if they have the same tag.
>
> Overall, since the kernel boots and works, there are no critical bugs.
> As for the rest, the traditional kernel testing way (use until fails) is
> the only one that looks feasible.
>
> Another point here is that tag-based KASAN is available under a separate
> config option that needs to be deliberately enabled. Even though it might
> be used in a "near-production" environment to find bugs that are not found
> during fuzzing or running tests, it is still a debug tool.
>
>
> ====== Benchmarks
>
> The following numbers were collected on Odroid C2 board. Both generic and
> tag-based KASAN were used in inline instrumentation mode.
>
> Boot time [1]:
> * ~1.7 sec for clean kernel
> * ~5.0 sec for generic KASAN
> * ~5.0 sec for tag-based KASAN
>
> Network performance [2]:
> * 8.33 Gbits/sec for clean kernel
> * 3.17 Gbits/sec for generic KASAN
> * 2.85 Gbits/sec for tag-based KASAN
>
> Slab memory usage after boot [3]:
> * ~40 kb for clean kernel
> * ~105 kb (~260% overhead) for generic KASAN
> * ~47 kb (~20% overhead) for tag-based KASAN
>
> KASAN memory overhead consists of three main parts:
> 1. Increased slab memory usage due to redzones.
> 2. Shadow memory (the whole reserved once during boot).
> 3. Quaratine (grows gradually until some preset limit; the more the limit,
> the more the chance to detect a use-after-free).
>
> Comparing tag-based vs generic KASAN for each of these points:
> 1. 20% vs 260% overhead.
> 2. 1/16th vs 1/8th of physical memory.
> 3. Tag-based KASAN doesn't require quarantine.
>
> [1] Time before the ext4 driver is initialized.
> [2] Measured as `iperf -s & iperf -c 127.0.0.1 -t 30`.
> [3] Measured as `cat /proc/meminfo | grep Slab`.
>
>
> ====== Some notes
>
> A few notes:
>
> 1. The patchset can be found here:
> https://github.com/xairy/kasan-prototype/tree/khwasan
>
> 2. Building requires a recent Clang version (7.0.0 or later).
>
> 3. Stack instrumentation is not supported yet and will be added later.
>
>
> ====== Changes
>
> Changes in v11:
> - Rebased onto 9ff01193 (4.20-rc3).
> - Moved KASAN_SHADOW_SCALE_SHIFT definition to arch/arm64/Makefile.
> - Added and used CC_HAS_KASAN_GENERIC and CC_HAS_KASAN_SW_TAGS configs to
> detect compiler support.
> - New patch: "kasan: rename kasan_zero_page to kasan_early_shadow_page".
> - New patch: "arm64: move untagged_addr macro from uaccess.h to memory.h".
> - Renamed KASAN_SET_TAG/... macros in arch/arm64/include/asm/memory.h to
> __tag_set/... and reused them later in KASAN core code instead of
> redefining.
> - Removed tag reset from the __kimg_to_phys() macro.
> - Fixed tagged pointer handling in arm64 fault handling logic.

Hi Mark and Catalin,

I've addressed your comments, please take a look.

Thanks!

>
> Changes in v10:
> - Rebased onto 65102238 (4.20-rc1).
> - Don't ignore kasan_kmalloc() return valued in kmem_cache_alloc_trace()
> and kmem_cache_alloc_node_trace() in include/linux/slab.h.
> - New patch: don't ignore kasan_kmalloc return value in
> early_kmem_cache_node_alloc.
> - New patch: added __must_check annotations to KASAN hooks that assign
> tags.
> - Changed KASAN clang version requirement to 7.0.0 (as we need rL329612).
> - Moved __no_sanitize_address definition from compiler_attributes.h to
> compiler-gcc.h and compiler-clang.h.
>
> Changes in v9:
> - Fixed kasan_init_slab_obj() hook when KASAN is disabled.
> - Added assign_tag() function that preassigns tags for caches with
> constructors.
> - Fixed KASAN_TAG_MASK redefinition in include/linux/mm.h vs
> mm/kasan/kasan.h.
>
> Changes in v8:
> - Rebased onto 7876320f (4.19-rc4).
> - Renamed KHWASAN to software tag-based KASAN (see the top of the cover
> letter for details).
> - Explicitly called tag-based KASAN a debug tool.
> - Reused kasan_init_slab_obj() callback to preassign tags to caches
> without constructors, remove khwasan_preset_sl(u/a)b_tag().
> - Moved move obj_to_index to include/linux/slab_def.h from mm/slab.c.
> - Moved cache->s_mem untagging to alloc_slabmgmt() for SLAB.
> - Fixed check_memory_region() to correctly handle user memory accesses and
> size == 0 case.
> - Merged __no_sanitize_hwaddress into __no_sanitize_address.
> - Defined KASAN_SET_TAG and KASAN_RESET_TAG macros for non KASAN builds to
> avoid duplication of __kimg_to_phys, _virt_addr_is_linear and
> page_to_virt macros.
> - Fixed and simplified find_first_bad_addr for generic KASAN.
> - Use non symbolized example KASAN report in documentation.
> - Mention clang version requirements for both KASAN modes in the Kconfig
> options and in the documentation.
> - Various small fixes.
>
> Version v7 got accidentally skipped.
>
> Changes in v6:
> - Rebased onto 050cdc6c (4.19-rc1+).
> - Added notes regarding patchset testing into the cover letter.
>
> Changes in v5:
> - Rebased onto 1ffaddd029 (4.18-rc8).
> - Preassign tags for objects from caches with constructors and
> SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU caches.
> - Fix SLAB allocator support by untagging page->s_mem in
> kasan_poison_slab().
> - Performed dynamic testing to find potential places where pointer tagging
> might result in bugs [1].
> - Clarified and fixed memory usage benchmarks in the cover letter.
> - Added a rationale for having KHWASAN to the cover letter.
>
> Changes in v4:
> - Fixed SPDX comment style in mm/kasan/kasan.h.
> - Fixed mm/kasan/kasan.h changes being included in a wrong patch.
> - Swapped "khwasan, arm64: fix up fault handling logic" and "khwasan: add
> tag related helper functions" patches order.
> - Rebased onto 6f0d349d (4.18-rc2+).
>
> Changes in v3:
> - Minor documentation fixes.
> - Fixed CFLAGS variable name in KASAN makefile.
> - Added a "SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0" line to all source files
> under mm/kasan.
> - Rebased onto 81e97f013 (4.18-rc1+).
>
> Changes in v2:
> - Changed kmalloc_large_node_hook to return tagged pointer instead of
> using an output argument.
> - Fix checking whether -fsanitize=hwaddress is supported by the compiler.
> - Removed duplication of -fno-builtin for KASAN and KHWASAN.
> - Removed {} block for one line for_each_possible_cpu loop.
> - Made set_track() static inline as it is used only in common.c.
> - Moved optimal_redzone() to common.c.
> - Fixed using tagged pointer for shadow calculation in
> kasan_unpoison_shadow().
> - Restored setting cache->align in kasan_cache_create(), which was
> accidentally lost.
> - Simplified __kasan_slab_free(), kasan_alloc_pages() and kasan_kmalloc().
> - Removed tagging from kasan_kmalloc_large().
> - Added page_kasan_tag_reset() to kasan_poison_slab() and removed
> !PageSlab() check from page_to_virt.
> - Reset pointer tag in _virt_addr_is_linear.
> - Set page tag for each page when multiple pages are allocated or freed.
> - Added a comment as to why we ignore cma allocated pages.
>
> Changes in v1:
> - Rebased onto 4.17-rc4.
> - Updated benchmarking stats.
> - Documented compiler version requirements, memory usage and slowdown.
> - Dropped kvm patches, as clang + arm64 + kvm is completely broken [1].
>
> Changes in RFC v3:
> - Renamed CONFIG_KASAN_CLASSIC and CONFIG_KASAN_TAGS to
> CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC and CONFIG_KASAN_HW respectively.
> - Switch to -fsanitize=kernel-hwaddress instead of -fsanitize=hwaddress.
> - Removed unnecessary excessive shadow initialization.
> - Removed khwasan_enabled flag (it's not needed since KHWASAN is
> initialized before any slab caches are used).
> - Split out kasan_report.c and khwasan_report.c from report.c.
> - Moved more common KASAN and KHWASAN functions to common.c.
> - Added tagging to pagealloc.
> - Rebased onto 4.17-rc1.
> - Temporarily dropped patch that adds kvm support (arm64 + kvm + clang
> combo is broken right now [2]).
>
> Changes in RFC v2:
> - Removed explicit casts to u8 * for kasan_mem_to_shadow() calls.
> - Introduced KASAN_TCR_FLAGS for setting the TCR_TBI1 flag.
> - Added a comment regarding the non-atomic RMW sequence in
> khwasan_random_tag().
> - Made all tag related functions accept const void *.
> - Untagged pointers in __kimg_to_phys, which is used by virt_to_phys.
> - Untagged pointers in show_ptr in fault handling logic.
> - Untagged pointers passed to KVM.
> - Added two reserved tag values: 0xFF and 0xFE.
> - Used the reserved tag 0xFF to disable validity checking (to resolve the
> issue with pointer tag being lost after page_address + kmap usage).
> - Used the reserved tag 0xFE to mark redzones and freed objects.
> - Added mnemonics for esr manipulation in KHWASAN brk handler.
> - Added a comment about the -recover flag.
> - Some minor cleanups and fixes.
> - Rebased onto 3215b9d5 (4.16-rc6+).
> - Tested on real hardware (Odroid C2 board).
> - Added better benchmarks.
>
> [1] https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/7/18/765
> [2] https://lkml.org/lkml/2018/4/19/775
>
> Reviewed-by: Andrey Ryabinin <aryabinin@virtuozzo.com>
> Reviewed-by: Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>
> Signed-off-by: Andrey Konovalov <andreyknvl@google.com>
>
> Andrey Konovalov (24):
> kasan, mm: change hooks signatures
> kasan, slub: handle pointer tags in early_kmem_cache_node_alloc
> kasan: move common generic and tag-based code to common.c
> kasan: rename source files to reflect the new naming scheme
> kasan: add CONFIG_KASAN_GENERIC and CONFIG_KASAN_SW_TAGS
> kasan, arm64: adjust shadow size for tag-based mode
> kasan: rename kasan_zero_page to kasan_early_shadow_page
> kasan: initialize shadow to 0xff for tag-based mode
> arm64: move untagged_addr macro from uaccess.h to memory.h
> kasan: add tag related helper functions
> kasan, arm64: untag address in _virt_addr_is_linear
> kasan: preassign tags to objects with ctors or SLAB_TYPESAFE_BY_RCU
> kasan, arm64: fix up fault handling logic
> kasan, arm64: enable top byte ignore for the kernel
> kasan, mm: perform untagged pointers comparison in krealloc
> kasan: split out generic_report.c from report.c
> kasan: add bug reporting routines for tag-based mode
> mm: move obj_to_index to include/linux/slab_def.h
> kasan: add hooks implementation for tag-based mode
> kasan, arm64: add brk handler for inline instrumentation
> kasan, mm, arm64: tag non slab memory allocated via pagealloc
> kasan: add __must_check annotations to kasan hooks
> kasan: update documentation
> kasan: add SPDX-License-Identifier mark to source files
>
> Documentation/dev-tools/kasan.rst | 232 +++++----
> arch/arm64/Kconfig | 1 +
> arch/arm64/Makefile | 11 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/brk-imm.h | 2 +
> arch/arm64/include/asm/kasan.h | 8 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/memory.h | 42 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/pgtable-hwdef.h | 1 +
> arch/arm64/include/asm/uaccess.h | 7 -
> arch/arm64/kernel/traps.c | 68 ++-
> arch/arm64/mm/fault.c | 31 +-
> arch/arm64/mm/kasan_init.c | 56 ++-
> arch/arm64/mm/proc.S | 8 +-
> arch/s390/mm/dump_pagetables.c | 16 +-
> arch/s390/mm/kasan_init.c | 33 +-
> arch/x86/mm/dump_pagetables.c | 11 +-
> arch/x86/mm/kasan_init_64.c | 55 ++-
> arch/xtensa/mm/kasan_init.c | 18 +-
> include/linux/compiler-clang.h | 5 +-
> include/linux/compiler-gcc.h | 6 +
> include/linux/compiler_attributes.h | 13 -
> include/linux/kasan.h | 101 +++-
> include/linux/mm.h | 29 ++
> include/linux/page-flags-layout.h | 10 +
> include/linux/slab.h | 4 +-
> include/linux/slab_def.h | 13 +
> lib/Kconfig.kasan | 96 +++-
> mm/cma.c | 11 +
> mm/kasan/Makefile | 15 +-
> mm/kasan/{kasan.c => common.c} | 655 +++++++++----------------
> mm/kasan/generic.c | 344 +++++++++++++
> mm/kasan/generic_report.c | 153 ++++++
> mm/kasan/{kasan_init.c => init.c} | 71 +--
> mm/kasan/kasan.h | 59 ++-
> mm/kasan/quarantine.c | 1 +
> mm/kasan/report.c | 272 +++-------
> mm/kasan/tags.c | 161 ++++++
> mm/kasan/tags_report.c | 58 +++
> mm/page_alloc.c | 1 +
> mm/slab.c | 29 +-
> mm/slab.h | 2 +-
> mm/slab_common.c | 6 +-
> mm/slub.c | 51 +-
> scripts/Makefile.kasan | 53 +-
> 43 files changed, 1822 insertions(+), 997 deletions(-)
> rename mm/kasan/{kasan.c => common.c} (59%)
> create mode 100644 mm/kasan/generic.c
> create mode 100644 mm/kasan/generic_report.c
> rename mm/kasan/{kasan_init.c => init.c} (82%)
> create mode 100644 mm/kasan/tags.c
> create mode 100644 mm/kasan/tags_report.c
>
> --
> 2.19.1.1215.g8438c0b245-goog
>

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