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SubjectRe: [RFC 00/20] ns: Introduce Time Namespace
On Sat, Oct 20, 2018 at 06:41:23PM -0700, Andrei Vagin wrote:
> On Fri, Sep 28, 2018 at 07:03:22PM +0200, Eric W. Biederman wrote:
> > Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de> writes:
> >
> > > On Wed, 26 Sep 2018, Eric W. Biederman wrote:
> > >> Reading the code the calling sequence there is:
> > >> tick_sched_do_timer
> > >> tick_do_update_jiffies64
> > >> update_wall_time
> > >> timekeeping_advance
> > >> timekeepging_update
> > >>
> > >> If I read that properly under the right nohz circumstances that update
> > >> can be delayed indefinitely.
> > >>
> > >> So I think we could prototype a time namespace that was per
> > >> timekeeping_update and just had update_wall_time iterate through
> > >> all of the time namespaces.
> > >
> > > Please don't go there. timekeeping_update() is already heavy and walking
> > > through a gazillion of namespaces will just make it horrible,
> > >
> > >> I don't think the naive version would scale to very many time
> > >> namespaces.
> > >
> > > :)
> > >
> > >> At the same time using the techniques from the nohz work and a little
> > >> smarts I expect we could get the code to scale.
> > >
> > > You'd need to invoke the update when the namespace is switched in and
> > > hasn't been updated since the last tick happened. That might be doable, but
> > > you also need to take the wraparound constraints of the underlying
> > > clocksources into account, which again can cause walking all name spaces
> > > when they are all idle long enough.
> >
> > The wrap around constraints being how long before the time sources wrap
> > around so you have to read them once per wrap around? I have not dug
> > deeply enough into the code to see that yet.
> >
> > > From there it becomes hairy, because it's not only timekeeping,
> > > i.e. reading time, this is also affecting all timers which are armed from a
> > > namespace.
> > >
> > > That gets really ugly because when you do settimeofday() or adjtimex() for
> > > a particular namespace, then you have to search for all armed timers of
> > > that namespace and adjust them.
> > >
> > > The original posix timer code had the same issue because it mapped the
> > > clock realtime timers to the timer wheel so any setting of the clock caused
> > > a full walk of all armed timers, disarming, adjusting and requeing
> > > them. That's horrible not only performance wise, it's also a locking
> > > nightmare of all sorts.
> > >
> > > Add time skew via NTP/PTP into the picture and you might have to adjust
> > > timers as well, because you need to guarantee that they are not expiring
> > > early.
> > >
> > > I haven't looked through Dimitry's patches yet, but I don't see how this
> > > can work at all without introducing subtle issues all over the place.
> >
> > Then it sounds like this will take some more digging.
> >
> > Please pardon me for thinking out load.
> >
> > There are one or more time sources that we use to compute the time
> > and for each time source we have a conversion from ticks of the
> > time source to nanoseconds.
> >
> > Each time source needs to be sampled at least once per wrap-around
> > and something incremented so that we don't loose time when looking
> > at that time source.
> >
> > There are several clocks presented to userspace and they all share the
> > same length of second and are all fundamentally offsets from
> > CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
> >
> > I see two fundamental driving cases for a time namespace.
> > 1) Migration from one node to another node in a cluster in almost
> > real time.
> >
> > The problem is that CLOCK_MONOTONIC between nodes in the cluster
> > has not relation ship to each other (except a synchronized length of
> > the second). So applications that migrate can see CLOCK_MONOTONIC
> > and CLOCK_BOOTTIME go backwards.
> >
> > This is the truly pressing problem and adding some kind of offset
> > sounds like it would be the solution. Possibly by allowing a boot
> > time synchronization of CLOCK_BOOTTIME and CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
> >
> > 2) Dealing with two separate time management domains. Say a machine
> > that needes to deal with both something inside of google where they
> > slew time to avoid leap time seconds and something in the outside
> > world proper UTC time is kept as an offset from TAI with the
> > occasional leap seconds.
> >
> > In the later case it would fundamentally require having seconds of
> > different length.
> >
>
> I want to add that the second case should be optional.
>
> When a container is migrated to another host, we have to restore its
> monotonic and boottime clocks, but we still expect that the container
> will continue using the host real-time clock.
>
> Before stating this series, I was thinking about this, I decided that
> these cases can be solved independently. Probably, the full isolation of
> the time sub-system will have much higher overhead than just offsets for
> a few clocks. And the idea that isolation of the real-time clock should
> be optional gives us another hint that offsets for monotonic and
> boot-time clocks can be implemented independently.
>
> Eric and Tomas, what do you think about this? If you agree that these

Sorry Thomas, I mistyped your name.

> two cases can be implemented separately, what should we do with this
> series to make it ready to be merged?
>
> I know that we need to:
>
> * look at device drivers that report timestamps in CLOCK_MONOTONIC base.
> * forbid changing offsets after creating timers
>
> Anything else?
>
> Thanks,
> Andrei
>
> >
> > A pure 64bit nanoseond counter is good for 500 years. So 64bit
> > variables can be used to hold time, and everything can be converted from
> > there.
> >
> > This suggests we can for ticks have two values.
> > - The number of ticks from the time source.
> > - The number of times the ticks would have rolled over.
> >
> > That sounds like it may be a little simplistic as it would require being
> > very diligent about firing a timer exactly at rollover and not losing
> > that, but for a handwaving argument is probably enough to generate
> > a 64bit tick counter.
> >
> > If the focus is on a 64bit tick counter then what update_wall_time
> > has to do is very limited. Just deal the accounting needed to cope with
> > tick rollover.
> >
> > Getting the actual time looks like it would be as simple as now, with
> > perhaps an extra addition to account for the number of times the tick
> > counter has rolled over. With limited precision arithmetic and various
> > optimizations I don't think it is that simple to implement but it feels
> > like it should be very little extra work.
> >
> > For timers my inclination would be to assume no adjustments to the
> > current time parameters and set the timer to go off then. If the time
> > on the appropriate clock has been changed since the timer was set and
> > the timer is going off early reschedule so the timer fires at the
> > appropriate time.
> >
> > With the above I think it is theoretically possible to build a time
> > namespace that supports multiple lengths of second, and does not have
> > much overhead.
> >
> > Not that I think a final implementation would necessary look like what I
> > have described. I just think it is possible with extreme care to evolve
> > the current code base into something that can efficiently handle
> > multiple time domains with slightly different lenghts of second.
> >
> > Thomas does it sound like I am completely out of touch with reality?
> >
> > It does though sound like it is going to take some serious digging
> > through the code to understand how what everything does and how and why
> > everthing works the way it does. Not something grafted on top with just
> > a cursory understanding of how the code works.
> >
> > Eric
> > _______________________________________________
> > Containers mailing list
> > Containers@lists.linux-foundation.org
> > https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/mailman/listinfo/containers

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