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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 2/4] arm64: implement ftrace with regs
On Mon, Oct 01, 2018 at 04:16:48PM +0200, Torsten Duwe wrote:
> Check for compiler support of -fpatchable-function-entry and use it
> to intercept functions immediately on entry, saving the LR in x9.
> patchable-function-entry in GCC disables IPA-RA, which means ABI
> register calling conventions are obeyed *and* scratch registers are
> available.
> Disable ftracing in efi/libstub, because this triggers cross-section
> linker errors now (-pg is disabled already for those files).
> Add an ftrace_caller which can handle LR in x9, as well as an
> ftrace_regs_caller that additionally writes out a set of pt_regs
> for inspection.
> Introduce and handle an ftrace_regs_trampoline for module PLTs.

This reads like a changelog rather than a commit message, which makes
review far more painful than necessary.

It would be very helpful if you could rewrite this commit message to
explain *what* you are trying to achieve, the caveats, then if
necessary, any details worth noting.

For example, could you please add an explanation of why the magic with
x9 is necessary? I understand that you need to preserve the original
x30, and that rationale should be in the commit message.

> Signed-off-by: Torsten Duwe <duwe@suse.de>
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/Kconfig
> +++ b/arch/arm64/Kconfig
> @@ -110,6 +110,7 @@ config ARM64
> select HAVE_DEBUG_KMEMLEAK
> select HAVE_DMA_CONTIGUOUS
> select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
> + select HAVE_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> select HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS
> select HAVE_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
> select HAVE_FUNCTION_TRACER
> --- a/arch/arm64/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm64/Makefile
> @@ -78,6 +78,15 @@ ifeq ($(CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS),y)
> KBUILD_LDFLAGS_MODULE += -T $(srctree)/arch/arm64/kernel/module.lds
> endif
>
> +ifeq ($(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS),y)
> + CC_FLAGS_FTRACE := -fpatchable-function-entry=2
> + KBUILD_CPPFLAGS += -DCC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY
> + ifeq ($(call cc-option,-fpatchable-function-entry=2),)
> + $(error Cannot use CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS: \
> + -fpatchable-function-entry not supported by compiler)
> + endif
> +endif
> +
> # Default value
> head-y := arch/arm64/kernel/head.o
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/ftrace.h
> @@ -16,6 +16,17 @@
> #define MCOUNT_ADDR ((unsigned long)_mcount)
> #define MCOUNT_INSN_SIZE AARCH64_INSN_SIZE
>
> +/* DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS is implemented by adding 2 NOPs at the beginning
> + of each function, with the second NOP actually calling ftrace. In contrary
> + to a classic _mcount call, the call instruction to be modified is thus
> + the second one, and not the only one. */

Bogus comment style. Please follow the usual style:

/*
* Like this.
*/

> +#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> +#define ARCH_SUPPORTS_FTRACE_OPS 1
> +#define REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET AARCH64_INSN_SIZE
> +#else
> +#define REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET 0
> +#endif
> +
> #ifndef __ASSEMBLY__
> #include <linux/compat.h>
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile
> @@ -7,9 +7,9 @@ CPPFLAGS_vmlinux.lds := -DTEXT_OFFSET=$(
> AFLAGS_head.o := -DTEXT_OFFSET=$(TEXT_OFFSET)
> CFLAGS_armv8_deprecated.o := -I$(src)
>
> -CFLAGS_REMOVE_ftrace.o = -pg
> -CFLAGS_REMOVE_insn.o = -pg
> -CFLAGS_REMOVE_return_address.o = -pg
> +CFLAGS_REMOVE_ftrace.o = -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
> +CFLAGS_REMOVE_insn.o = -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
> +CFLAGS_REMOVE_return_address.o = -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)
>
> # Object file lists.
> arm64-obj-y := debug-monitors.o entry.o irq.o fpsimd.o \
> --- a/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
> +++ b/drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile
> @@ -11,7 +11,8 @@ cflags-$(CONFIG_X86) += -m$(BITS) -D__K
> -fPIC -fno-strict-aliasing -mno-red-zone \
> -mno-mmx -mno-sse -fshort-wchar
>
> -cflags-$(CONFIG_ARM64) := $(subst -pg,,$(KBUILD_CFLAGS)) -fpie
> +cflags-$(CONFIG_ARM64) := $(filter-out -pg $(CC_FLAGS_FTRACE)\
> + ,$(KBUILD_CFLAGS)) -fpie
> cflags-$(CONFIG_ARM) := $(subst -pg,,$(KBUILD_CFLAGS)) \
> -fno-builtin -fpic -mno-single-pic-base
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/entry-ftrace.S
> @@ -13,6 +13,8 @@
> #include <asm/assembler.h>
> #include <asm/ftrace.h>
> #include <asm/insn.h>
> +#include <asm/asm-offsets.h>
> +#include <asm/assembler.h>
>
> /*
> * Gcc with -pg will put the following code in the beginning of each function:
> @@ -123,6 +125,7 @@ skip_ftrace_call: // }
> ENDPROC(_mcount)
>
> #else /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> +#ifndef CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY
> /*
> * _mcount() is used to build the kernel with -pg option, but all the branch
> * instructions to _mcount() are replaced to NOP initially at kernel start up,
> @@ -162,6 +165,92 @@ ftrace_graph_call: // ftrace_graph_cal
>
> mcount_exit
> ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
> +#else /* CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY */
> +
> +/* Since no -pg or similar compiler flag is used, there should really be
> + no reference to _mcount; so do not define one. Only a function address
> + is needed in order to refer to it. */

Bogus comment style again.

The comment says that there shouldn't be any reference to _mcount, then
that we should define it in order to refer to it, which doesn't make any
sense to me.

If there shouldn't be any references to it, there's no reason for it to
exist at all. Where is it being referred to, and why?

> +ENTRY(_mcount)
> + ret /* just in case, prevent any fall through. */
> +ENDPROC(_mcount)
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_regs_caller)
> + sub sp, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE
> + stp x29, x9, [sp, #-16] /* FP/LR link */

It does not make sense to me to store this *below* the SP. We already
have pt_regs::stackframe, so please use that.

> + stp x10, x11, [sp, #S_X10]
> + stp x12, x13, [sp, #S_X12]
> + stp x14, x15, [sp, #112]
> + stp x16, x17, [sp, #128]
> + stp x18, x19, [sp, #144]
> + stp x20, x21, [sp, #160]
> + stp x22, x23, [sp, #176]
> + stp x24, x25, [sp, #192]
> + stp x26, x27, [sp, #208]
Please use the S_X14...S_X26 definitions, following on from S_X10 and
S_X12.

> +
> + b ftrace_common
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_regs_caller)
> +
> +ENTRY(ftrace_caller)
> + sub sp, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE
> + stp x29, x9, [sp, #-16] /* FP/LR link */

As with ftrace_regs_caller, storing below the SP is not sound. Please
use pt_regs::stackframe.

> +
> +ftrace_common:
> + stp x28, x29, [sp, #224] /* FP in pt_regs + "our" x28 */
> +
> + /* save function arguments */
> + stp x0, x1, [sp]
> + stp x2, x3, [sp, #16]
> + stp x4, x5, [sp, #32]
> + stp x6, x7, [sp, #48]
> + stp x8, x9, [sp, #64]

Please use S_X0...S_X8 here.

> + /* The link Register at callee entry */
> + str x9, [sp, #S_LR] /* to pt_regs.r[30] */
> + /* The program counter just after the ftrace call site */
> + str lr, [sp, #S_PC]
> + /* The stack pointer as it was on ftrace_caller entry... */
> + add x29, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE
> + str x29, [sp, #S_SP]

Corrupting the link register in this way does not seem safe to me.

> +
> + ldr_l x2, function_trace_op, x0
> + mov x1, x9 /* saved LR == parent IP */
> + sub x0, lr, #8 /* function entry == IP */
> + mov x3, sp /* pt_regs are @sp */
> + sub sp, sp, #16 /* skip over FP/LR link */

Please use the embedded pt_regs::stackframe; that way you can avoid
having to play with the SP so much.

> +
> + .global ftrace_call
> +ftrace_call:
> +
> + bl ftrace_stub
> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER
> + .global ftrace_graph_call
> +ftrace_graph_call: // ftrace_graph_caller();
> + nop // If enabled, this will be replaced
> + // "b ftrace_graph_caller"
> +#endif
> +
> +ftrace_common_return:
> + add sp, sp, #16 /* advance to pt_regs for restore */

With the embedded pt_regs::stackframe, this isn't necessary.

> +
> + ldp x0, x1, [sp]
> + ldp x2, x3, [sp, #16]
> + ldp x4, x5, [sp, #32]
> + ldp x6, x7, [sp, #48]
> + ldp x8, x9, [sp, #64]
> +
> + ldp x28, x29, [sp, #224]

Please use the S_X<n> definitions for these offsets.

> +
> + ldr x9, [sp, #S_PC]
> + ldr lr, [sp, #S_LR]
> + add sp, sp, #S_FRAME_SIZE
> +
> + ret x9
> +
> +ENDPROC(ftrace_caller)
> +
> +#endif /* CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY */
> #endif /* CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
>
> ENTRY(ftrace_stub)
> @@ -197,12 +286,20 @@ ENDPROC(ftrace_stub)
> * and run return_to_handler() later on its exit.
> */
> ENTRY(ftrace_graph_caller)
> +#ifndef CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY
> mcount_get_lr_addr x0 // pointer to function's saved lr
> mcount_get_pc x1 // function's pc
> mcount_get_parent_fp x2 // parent's fp
> bl prepare_ftrace_return // prepare_ftrace_return(&lr, pc, fp)
>
> mcount_exit
> +#else
> + add x0, sp, #S_LR+16 /* address of (LR pointing into caller) */

This comment didn't help. What exactly are you trying to access here?

Please put a space around binary operators, i.e. this should be:

add x0, sp, #S_LR + 16

... or with brackets to avoid any ambiguous readings:

add x0, sp, #(S_LR + 16)

> + ldr x1, [sp, #S_PC+16]
> + ldr x2, [sp, #S_X28 + 8+16] /* caller's frame pointer */

What exactly are you trying to access here?

Please use an S_<reg> definition. If one doesn't exist, add one to
asm-offsets.

> + bl prepare_ftrace_return
> + b ftrace_common_return
> +#endif
> ENDPROC(ftrace_graph_caller)
>
> /*
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/ftrace.c
> @@ -65,18 +65,66 @@ int ftrace_update_ftrace_func(ftrace_fun
> return ftrace_modify_code(pc, 0, new, false);
> }
>
> +#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS
> +/* Have the assembler generate a known "mov x9,x30" at compile time. */
> +static void notrace noinline __attribute__((used)) mov_x9_x30(void)
> +{
> + asm(" .global insn_mov_x9_x30\n"
> + "insn_mov_x9_x30: mov x9,x30\n" : : : "x9");
> +}
> +#endif

This is fragile and more complicated than necessary.

Please use the insn framework, as we do to generate all the other
instruction sequences in ftrace.

MOV (register) is an alias of ORR (shifted register), i.e.

mov <xd>, <xm>

... is:

orr <xd>, xzr, <xm>

... and we have code to generate ORR, so we can add a trivial wrapper to
generate MOV.

> +
> +#ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> +int use_ftrace_trampoline(struct module *mod, unsigned long *addr)
> +{
> + struct plt_entry trampoline;
> + trampoline = get_plt_entry(*addr);
> + if (*addr == FTRACE_ADDR) {
> + if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> + &trampoline)) {
> +
> + /* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
> + module_disable_ro(mod);
> + *mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline = trampoline;
> + module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> +
> + /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> + smp_wmb();
> + }
> + *addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
> + }
> + else if (*addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR) {
> + if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline,
> + &trampoline)) {
> +
> + /* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
> + module_disable_ro(mod);
> + *mod->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline = trampoline;
> + module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> +
> + /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> + smp_wmb();
> + }
> + *addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline;
> + }
> + else
> + return -EINVAL;
> + return 0;
> +}
> +#endif

I think you can simplify this significantly by making the module
trampoline address a variable:

int use_ftrace_trampoline(struct module *mod, unsigned long *addr)
{
struct plt_entry trampoline = get_plt_entry(*addr);
struct plt_entry *mod_trampoline;
if (*addr == FTRACE_ADDR)
mod_trampoline = mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
else if (*addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR)
mod_trampoline = mod->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline;
else
return -EINVAL;
if (!plt_entries_equal(mode_trampoline, &trampoline)) {
/* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
module_disable_ro(mod);
*mod_trampoline = trampoline;
module_enable_ro(mod, true);
/* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
smp_wmb();
}
*addr = (unsigned long)mod_trampoline;

return 0;
}
... also, this would be better names as something like
install_ftrace_trampoline.

> +
> /*
> * Turn on the call to ftrace_caller() in instrumented function
> */
> int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long addr)
> {
> - unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> + int ret;
> u32 old, new;
> long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
>
> if (offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M) {
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> - struct plt_entry trampoline;
> struct module *mod;
>
> /*
> @@ -96,54 +144,67 @@ int ftrace_make_call(struct dyn_ftrace *
> if (WARN_ON(!mod))
> return -EINVAL;
>
> - /*
> - * There is only one ftrace trampoline per module. For now,
> - * this is not a problem since on arm64, all dynamic ftrace
> - * invocations are routed via ftrace_caller(). This will need
> - * to be revisited if support for multiple ftrace entry points
> - * is added in the future, but for now, the pr_err() below
> - * deals with a theoretical issue only.
> - */
> - trampoline = get_plt_entry(addr);
> - if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> - &trampoline)) {
> - if (!plt_entries_equal(mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline,
> - &(struct plt_entry){})) {
> - pr_err("ftrace: far branches to multiple entry points unsupported inside a single module\n");
> - return -EINVAL;
> - }
> -
> - /* point the trampoline to our ftrace entry point */
> - module_disable_ro(mod);
> - *mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline = trampoline;
> - module_enable_ro(mod, true);
> -
> - /* update trampoline before patching in the branch */
> - smp_wmb();
> + /* Check against our well-known list of ftrace entry points */
> + if (addr == FTRACE_ADDR || addr == FTRACE_REGS_ADDR) {
> + ret = use_ftrace_trampoline(mod, &addr);
> + if (ret < 0)
> + return ret;
> }
> - addr = (unsigned long)(void *)mod->arch.ftrace_trampoline;
> + else
> + return -EINVAL;
> +
> #else /* CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS */
> return -EINVAL;
> #endif /* CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS */
> }
>
> old = aarch64_insn_gen_nop();
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS)) {
> + new = *(u32*)&mov_x9_x30;

As before, please use the insn framework for this.

> + ret = ftrace_modify_code(pc - REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET,
> + old, new, true);
> + if (ret)
> + return ret;
> + smp_wmb(); /* ensure LR saver is in place before ftrace call */

Since ftrace_modify_code() does cache maintenance, completed with a DSB
ISH, the smp_wmb() isn't necessary -- the order of updates is already
ensured.

> + }
> new = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, addr, AARCH64_INSN_BRANCH_LINK);
>
> return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, true);
> }
>
> +int ftrace_modify_call(struct dyn_ftrace *rec, unsigned long old_addr,
> + unsigned long addr)
> +{
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> + u32 old, new;
> +
> + old = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, old_addr, true);
> + new = aarch64_insn_gen_branch_imm(pc, addr, true);
> +
> + return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, true);
> +}
> +
> +
> /*
> * Turn off the call to ftrace_caller() in instrumented function
> */
> int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod, struct dyn_ftrace *rec,
> unsigned long addr)
> {
> - unsigned long pc = rec->ip;
> + unsigned long pc = rec->ip + REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET;
> bool validate = true;
> + int ret;
> u32 old = 0, new;
> long offset = (long)pc - (long)addr;
>
> +#ifdef CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY
> + /* -fpatchable-function-entry= does not generate a profiling call
> + * initially; the NOPs are already there.
> + */
> + if (addr == MCOUNT_ADDR)
> + return 0;
> +#endif

Bogus comment style.

> +
> if (offset < -SZ_128M || offset >= SZ_128M) {
> #ifdef CONFIG_ARM64_MODULE_PLTS
> u32 replaced;
> @@ -188,7 +249,16 @@ int ftrace_make_nop(struct module *mod,
>
> new = aarch64_insn_gen_nop();
>
> - return ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, validate);
> + ret = ftrace_modify_code(pc, old, new, validate);
> + if (ret)
> + return ret;
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS)) {
> + smp_wmb(); /* ftrace call must not remain without LR saver. */

Unnecessary barrier.

Thanks,
Mark.

> + old = *(u32*)&mov_x9_x30;
> + ret = ftrace_modify_code(pc - REC_IP_BRANCH_OFFSET,
> + old, new, true);
> + }
> + return ret;
> }
>
> void arch_ftrace_update_code(int command)
> --- a/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
> +++ b/include/asm-generic/vmlinux.lds.h
> @@ -115,6 +115,7 @@
> #define MCOUNT_REC() . = ALIGN(8); \
> __start_mcount_loc = .; \
> KEEP(*(__mcount_loc)) \
> + KEEP(*(__patchable_function_entries)) \
> __stop_mcount_loc = .;
> #else
> #define MCOUNT_REC()
> --- a/include/linux/compiler_types.h
> +++ b/include/linux/compiler_types.h
> @@ -61,8 +61,12 @@ extern void __chk_io_ptr(const volatile
> #if defined(CC_USING_HOTPATCH) && !defined(__CHECKER__)
> #define notrace __attribute__((hotpatch(0,0)))
> #else
> +#ifdef CC_USING_PATCHABLE_FUNCTION_ENTRY
> +#define notrace __attribute__((patchable_function_entry(0)))
> +#else
> #define notrace __attribute__((no_instrument_function))
> #endif
> +#endif
>
> /* Intel compiler defines __GNUC__. So we will overwrite implementations
> * coming from above header files here
> --- a/arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h
> +++ b/arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h
> @@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ struct mod_arch_specific {
>
> /* for CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE */
> struct plt_entry *ftrace_trampoline;
> + struct plt_entry *ftrace_regs_trampoline;
> };
> #endif
>
> --- a/arch/arm64/kernel/module.c
> +++ b/arch/arm64/kernel/module.c
> @@ -454,6 +454,10 @@ int module_finalize(const Elf_Ehdr *hdr,
> if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE) &&
> !strcmp(".text.ftrace_trampoline", secstrs + s->sh_name))
> me->arch.ftrace_trampoline = (void *)s->sh_addr;
> + if (IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE_WITH_REGS) &&
> + !strcmp(".text.ftrace_regs_trampoline",
> + secstrs + s->sh_name))
> + me->arch.ftrace_regs_trampoline = (void *)s->sh_addr;
> #endif
> }
>

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