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Subject[PATCH v7 0/9] Application Data Integrity feature introduced by SPARC M7
SPARC M7 processor adds additional metadata for memory address space
that can be used to secure access to regions of memory. This additional
metadata is implemented as a 4-bit tag attached to each cacheline size
block of memory. A task can set a tag on any number of such blocks.
Access to such block is granted only if the virtual address used to
access that block of memory has the tag encoded in the uppermost 4 bits
of VA. Since sparc processor does not implement all 64 bits of VA, top 4
bits are available for ADI tags. Any mismatch between tag encoded in VA
and tag set on the memory block results in a trap. Tags are verified in
the VA presented to the MMU and tags are associated with the physical
page VA maps on to. If a memory page is swapped out and page frame gets
reused for another task, the tags are lost and hence must be saved when
swapping or migrating the page.

A userspace task enables ADI through mprotect(). This patch series adds
a page protection bit PROT_ADI and a corresponding VMA flag
VM_SPARC_ADI. VM_SPARC_ADI is used to trigger setting bit in the
sparc pte that enables ADI checking on the corresponding page. MMU
validates the tag embedded in VA for every page that has bit set
in its pte. After enabling ADI on a memory range, the userspace task can
set ADI version tags using stxa instruction with ASI_MCD_PRIMARY or

Once userspace task calls mprotect() with PROT_ADI, kernel takes
following overall steps:

1. Find the VMAs covering the address range passed in to mprotect and
set VM_SPARC_ADI flag. If address range covers a subset of a VMA, the
VMA will be split.

2. When a page is allocated for a VA and the VMA covering this VA has
VM_SPARC_ADI flag set, set the bit so MMU will check the
vwersion tag.

3. Userspace can now set version tags on the memory it has enabled ADI
on. Userspace accesses ADI enabled memory using a virtual address that
has the version tag embedded in the high bits. MMU validates this
version tag against the actual tag set on the memory. If tag matches,
MMU performs the VA->PA translation and access is granted. If there is a
mismatch, hypervisor sends a data access exception or precise memory
corruption detected exception depending upon whether precise exceptions
are enabled or not (controlled by MCDPERR register). Kernel sends
SIGSEGV to the task with appropriate si_code.

4. If a page is being swapped out or migrated, kernel must save any ADI
tags set on the page. Kernel maintains a page worth of tag storage
descriptors. Each descriptors pointsto a tag storage space and the
address range it covers. If the page being swapped out or migrated has
ADI enabled on it, kernel finds a tag storage descriptor that covers the
address range for the page or allocates a new descriptor if none of the
existing descriptors cover the address range. Kernel saves tags from the
page into the tag storage space descriptor points to.

5. When the page is swapped back in or reinstantiated after migration,
kernel restores the version tags on the new physical page by retrieving
the original tag from tag storage pointed to by a tag storage descriptor
for the virtual address range for new page.

User task can disable ADI by calling mprotect() again on the memory
range with PROT_ADI bit unset. Kernel clears the VM_SPARC_ADI flag in
VMAs, merges adjacent VMAs if necessary, and clears bit in the
corresponding ptes.

IOMMU does not support ADI checking. Any version tags embedded in the
top bits of VA meant for IOMMU, are cleared and replaced with sign
extension of the first non-version tag bit (bit 59 for SPARC M7) for
IOMMU addresses.

This patch series adds support for this feature in 9 patches:

Patch 1/9
Tag mismatch on access by a task results in a trap from hypervisor as
data access exception or a precide memory corruption detected
exception. As part of handling these exceptions, kernel sends a
SIGSEGV to user process with special si_code to indicate which fault
occurred. This patch adds three new si_codes to differentiate between
various mismatch errors.

Patch 2/9
When a page is swapped or migrated, metadata associated with the page
must be saved so it can be restored later. This patch adds a new
function that saves/restores this metadata when updating pte upon a

Patch 3/9
SPARC M7 processor adds new fields to control registers to support ADI
feature. It also adds a new exception for precise traps on tag
mismatch. This patch adds definitions for the new control register
fields, new ASIs for ADI and an exception handler for the precise trap
on tag mismatch.

Patch 4/9
New hypervisor fault types were added by sparc M7 processor to support
ADI feature. This patch adds code to handle these fault types for data
access exception handler.

Patch 5/9
When ADI is in use for a page and a tag mismatch occurs, processor
raises "Memory corruption Detected" trap. This patch adds a handler
for this trap.

Patch 6/9
ADI usage is governed by ADI properties on a platform. These
properties are provided to kernel by firmware. Thsi patch adds new
auxiliary vectors that provide these values to userpsace.

Patch 7/9
arch_validate_prot() is used to validate the new protection bits asked
for by the userspace app. Validating protection bits may need the
context of address space the bits are being applied to. One such
example is PROT_ADI bit on sparc processor that enables ADI protection
on an address range. ADI protection applies only to addresses covered
by physical RAM and not other PFN mapped addresses or device
addresses. This patch adds "address" to the parameters being passed to
arch_validate_prot() to provide that context.

Patch 8/9
When protection bits are changed on a page, kernel carries forward all
protection bits except for read/write/exec. Additional code was added
to allow kernel to clear PKEY bits on x86 but this requirement to
clear other bits is not unique to x86. This patch extends the existing
code to allow other architectures to clear any other protection bits
as well on protection bit change.

Patch 9/9
This patch adds support for a user space task to enable ADI and enable
tag checking for subsets of its address space. As part of enabling
this feature, this patch adds to support manipulation of precise
exception for memory corruption detection, adds code to save and
restore tags on page swap and migration, and adds code to handle ADI
tagged addresses for DMA.

Changelog v7:

- Patch 1/9: No changes
- Patch 2/9: Updated parameters to arch specific swap in/out
- Patch 3/9: No changes
- Patch 4/9: new patch split off from patch 4/4 in v6
- Patch 5/9: new patch split off from patch 4/4 in v6
- Patch 6/9: new patch split off from patch 4/4 in v6
- Patch 7/9: new patch
- Patch 8/9: new patch
- Patch 9/9:
- Enhanced arch_validate_prot() to enable ADI only on
writable addresses backed by physical RAM
- Added support for saving/restoring ADI tags for each
ADI block size address range on a page on swap in/out
- copy ADI tags on COW
- Updated values for auxiliary vectors to not conflict
with values on other architectures to avoid conflict
in glibc
- Disable same page merging on ADI enabled pages
- Enable ADI only on writable addresses backed by
physical RAM
- Split parts of patch off into separate patches

Changelog v6:
- Patch 1/4: No changes
- Patch 2/4: No changes
- Patch 3/4: Added missing nop in the delay slot in
- Patch 4/4: Eliminated instructions to read and write PSTATE
as well as MCDPER and PMCDPER on every access to userspace
addresses by setting PSTATE and PMCDPER correctly upon entry
into kernel

Changelog v5:
- Patch 1/4: No changes
- Patch 2/4: Replaced set_swp_pte_at() with new architecture
functions arch_do_swap_page() and arch_unmap_one() that
suppoprt architecture specific actions to be taken on page
swap and migration
- Patch 3/4: Fixed indentation issues in assembly code
- Patch 4/4:
- Fixed indentation issues and instrcuctions in assembly
- Removed CONFIG_SPARC64 from mdesc.c
- Changed to maintain state of MCDPER register in thread
info flags as opposed to in mm context. MCDPER is a
per-thread state and belongs in thread info flag as
opposed to mm context which is shared across threads.
Added comments to clarify this is a lazily maintained
state and must be updated on context switch and
- Updated code to use the new arch_do_swap_page() and
arch_unmap_one() functions


- All functionality was tested with 8K normal pages as well as hugepages
using malloc, mmap and shm.
- Multiple long duration stress tests were run using hugepages over 2+
months. Normal pages were tested with shorter duration stress tests.
- Tested swapping with malloc and shm by reducing max memory and
allocating three times the available system memory by active processes
using ADI on allocated memory. Ran through multiple hours long runs of
this test.
- Tested page migration with malloc and shm by migrating data pages of
active ADI test process using migratepages, back and forth between two
nodes every few seconds over an hour long run. Verified page migration
through /proc/<pid>/numa_maps.
- Tested COW support using test that forks children that read from
ADI enabled pages shared with parent and other children and write to
them as well forcing COW.

Khalid Aziz (9):
signals, sparc: Add signal codes for ADI violations
mm, swap: Add infrastructure for saving page metadata as well on swap
sparc64: Add support for ADI register fields, ASIs and traps
sparc64: Add HV fault type handlers for ADI related faults
sparc64: Add handler for "Memory Corruption Detected" trap
sparc64: Add auxiliary vectors to report platform ADI properties
mm: Add address parameter to arch_validate_prot()
mm: Clear arch specific VM flags on protection change
sparc64: Add support for ADI (Application Data Integrity)

Documentation/sparc/adi.txt | 272 +++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/powerpc/include/asm/mman.h | 2 +-
arch/powerpc/kernel/syscalls.c | 2 +-
arch/sparc/include/asm/adi.h | 6 +
arch/sparc/include/asm/adi_64.h | 45 ++++
arch/sparc/include/asm/elf_64.h | 8 +
arch/sparc/include/asm/hypervisor.h | 2 +
arch/sparc/include/asm/mman.h | 72 ++++++-
arch/sparc/include/asm/mmu_64.h | 17 ++
arch/sparc/include/asm/mmu_context_64.h | 43 ++++
arch/sparc/include/asm/page_64.h | 4 +
arch/sparc/include/asm/pgtable_64.h | 48 +++++
arch/sparc/include/asm/thread_info_64.h | 2 +-
arch/sparc/include/asm/trap_block.h | 2 +
arch/sparc/include/asm/ttable.h | 10 +
arch/sparc/include/uapi/asm/asi.h | 5 +
arch/sparc/include/uapi/asm/auxvec.h | 10 +
arch/sparc/include/uapi/asm/mman.h | 2 +
arch/sparc/include/uapi/asm/pstate.h | 10 +
arch/sparc/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
arch/sparc/kernel/adi_64.c | 367 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
arch/sparc/kernel/entry.h | 3 +
arch/sparc/kernel/etrap_64.S | 28 ++-
arch/sparc/kernel/head_64.S | 1 +
arch/sparc/kernel/mdesc.c | 2 +
arch/sparc/kernel/process_64.c | 25 +++
arch/sparc/kernel/setup_64.c | 11 +-
arch/sparc/kernel/sun4v_mcd.S | 17 ++
arch/sparc/kernel/traps_64.c | 142 +++++++++++-
arch/sparc/kernel/ttable_64.S | 6 +-
arch/sparc/kernel/ | 5 +
arch/sparc/mm/gup.c | 37 ++++
arch/sparc/mm/hugetlbpage.c | 14 +-
arch/sparc/mm/init_64.c | 33 +++
arch/sparc/mm/tsb.c | 21 ++
arch/x86/kernel/signal_compat.c | 2 +-
include/asm-generic/pgtable.h | 36 ++++
include/linux/mm.h | 9 +
include/linux/mman.h | 2 +-
include/uapi/asm-generic/siginfo.h | 5 +-
mm/ksm.c | 4 +
mm/memory.c | 1 +
mm/mprotect.c | 4 +-
mm/rmap.c | 13 ++
44 files changed, 1334 insertions(+), 17 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 Documentation/sparc/adi.txt
create mode 100644 arch/sparc/include/asm/adi.h
create mode 100644 arch/sparc/include/asm/adi_64.h
create mode 100644 arch/sparc/kernel/adi_64.c
create mode 100644 arch/sparc/kernel/sun4v_mcd.S


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