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Subject[PATCH v5 01/15] Documentation: Add SoundWire summary
From: Sanyog Kale <>

SoundWire is a new Linux bus which implements a new MIPI bus protocol
'SoundWire'. The summary of SoundWire bus and API is documented in the
'summary' file.

Signed-off-by: Sanyog Kale <>
Signed-off-by: Hardik T Shah <>
Signed-off-by: Pierre-Louis Bossart <>
Signed-off-by: Vinod Koul <>
Documentation/driver-api/index.rst | 1 +
Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/index.rst | 15 ++
Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/summary.rst | 207 +++++++++++++++++++++++++
3 files changed, 223 insertions(+)
create mode 100644 Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/index.rst
create mode 100644 Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/summary.rst

diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst
index d17a9876b473..17992b9e4a55 100644
--- a/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst
+++ b/Documentation/driver-api/index.rst
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@ available subsections can be seen below.
+ soundwire/index

.. only:: subproject and html

diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/index.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/index.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..647e94654752
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/index.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+SoundWire Documentation
+.. toctree::
+ :maxdepth: 1
+ summary
+.. only:: subproject
+ Indices
+ =======
+ * :ref:`genindex`
diff --git a/Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/summary.rst b/Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/summary.rst
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8193125a2bfb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/driver-api/soundwire/summary.rst
@@ -0,0 +1,207 @@
+SoundWire Subsystem Summary
+SoundWire is a new interface ratified in 2015 by the MIPI Alliance.
+SoundWire is used for transporting data typically related to audio
+functions. SoundWire interface is optimized to integrate audio devices in
+mobile or mobile inspired systems.
+SoundWire is a 2-pin multi-drop interface with data and clock line. It
+facilitates development of low cost, efficient, high performance systems.
+Broad level key features of SoundWire interface include:
+ (1) Transporting all of payload data channels, control information, and setup
+ commands over a single two-pin interface.
+ (2) Lower clock frequency, and hence lower power consumption, by use of DDR
+ (Dual Data Rate) data transmission.
+ (3) Clock scaling and optional multiple data lanes to give wide flexibility
+ in data rate to match system requirements.
+ (4) Device status monitoring, including interrupt-style alerts to the Master.
+The SoundWire protocol supports up to eleven Slave interfaces. All the
+interfaces share the common Bus containing data and clock line. Each of the
+Slaves can support up to 14 Data Ports. 13 Data Ports are dedicated to audio
+transport. Data Port0 is dedicated to transport of Bulk control information,
+each of the audio Data Ports (1..14) can support up to 8 Channels in
+transmit or receiving mode (typically fixed direction but configurable
+direction is enabled by the specification). Bandwidth restrictions to
+~19.2..24.576Mbits/s don't however allow for 11*13*8 channels to be
+transmitted simultaneously.
+Below figure shows an example of connectivity between a SoundWire Master and
+two Slave devices. ::
+ +---------------+ +---------------+
+ | | Clock Signal | |
+ | Master |-------+-------------------------------| Slave |
+ | Interface | | Data Signal | Interface 1 |
+ | |-------|-------+-----------------------| |
+ +---------------+ | | +---------------+
+ | |
+ | |
+ | |
+ +--+-------+--+
+ | |
+ | Slave |
+ | Interface 2 |
+ | |
+ +-------------+
+The MIPI SoundWire specification uses the term 'device' to refer to a Master
+or Slave interface, which of course can be confusing. In this summary and
+code we use the term interface only to refer to the hardware. We follow the
+Linux device model by mapping each Slave interface connected on the bus as a
+device managed by a specific driver. The Linux SoundWire subsystem provides
+a framework to implement a SoundWire Slave driver with an API allowing
+3rd-party vendors to enable implementation-defined functionality while
+common setup/configuration tasks are handled by the bus.
+Implements SoundWire Linux Bus which handles the SoundWire protocol.
+Programs all the MIPI-defined Slave registers. Represents a SoundWire
+Master. Multiple instances of Bus may be present in a system.
+Registers as SoundWire Slave device (Linux Device). Multiple Slave devices
+can register to a Bus instance.
+Slave driver:
+Driver controlling the Slave device. MIPI-specified registers are controlled
+directly by the Bus (and transmitted through the Master driver/interface).
+Any implementation-defined Slave register is controlled by Slave driver. In
+practice, it is expected that the Slave driver relies on regmap and does not
+request direct register access.
+Programming interfaces (SoundWire Master interface Driver)
+SoundWire Bus supports programming interfaces for the SoundWire Master
+implementation and SoundWire Slave devices. All the code uses the "sdw"
+prefix commonly used by SoC designers and 3rd party vendors.
+Each of the SoundWire Master interfaces needs to be registered to the Bus.
+Bus implements API to read standard Master MIPI properties and also provides
+callback in Master ops for Master driver to implement its own functions that
+provides capabilities information. DT support is not implemented at this
+time but should be trivial to add since capabilities are enabled with the
+``device_property_`` API.
+The Master interface along with the Master interface capabilities are
+registered based on board file, DT or ACPI.
+Following is the Bus API to register the SoundWire Bus:
+.. code-block:: c
+ int sdw_add_bus_master(struct sdw_bus *bus)
+ {
+ if (!bus->dev)
+ return -ENODEV;
+ mutex_init(&bus->lock);
+ INIT_LIST_HEAD(&bus->slaves);
+ /* Check ACPI for Slave devices */
+ sdw_acpi_find_slaves(bus);
+ /* Check DT for Slave devices */
+ sdw_of_find_slaves(bus);
+ return 0;
+ }
+This will initialize sdw_bus object for Master device. "sdw_master_ops" and
+"sdw_master_port_ops" callback functions are provided to the Bus.
+"sdw_master_ops" is used by Bus to control the Bus in the hardware specific
+way. It includes Bus control functions such as sending the SoundWire
+read/write messages on Bus, setting up clock frequency & Stream
+Synchronization Point (SSP). The "sdw_master_ops" structure abstracts the
+hardware details of the Master from the Bus.
+"sdw_master_port_ops" is used by Bus to setup the Port parameters of the
+Master interface Port. Master interface Port register map is not defined by
+MIPI specification, so Bus calls the "sdw_master_port_ops" callback
+function to do Port operations like "Port Prepare", "Port Transport params
+set", "Port enable and disable". The implementation of the Master driver can
+then perform hardware-specific configurations.
+Programming interfaces (SoundWire Slave Driver)
+The MIPI specification requires each Slave interface to expose a unique
+48-bit identifier, stored in 6 read-only dev_id registers. This dev_id
+identifier contains vendor and part information, as well as a field enabling
+to differentiate between identical components. An additional class field is
+currently unused. Slave driver is written for a specific vendor and part
+identifier, Bus enumerates the Slave device based on these two ids.
+Slave device and driver match is done based on these two ids . Probe
+of the Slave driver is called by Bus on successful match between device and
+driver id. A parent/child relationship is enforced between Master and Slave
+devices (the logical representation is aligned with the physical
+The information on Master/Slave dependencies is stored in platform data,
+board-file, ACPI or DT. The MIPI Software specification defines additional
+link_id parameters for controllers that have multiple Master interfaces. The
+dev_id registers are only unique in the scope of a link, and the link_id
+unique in the scope of a controller. Both dev_id and link_id are not
+necessarily unique at the system level but the parent/child information is
+used to avoid ambiguity.
+.. code-block:: c
+ static const struct sdw_device_id slave_id[] = {
+ SDW_SLAVE_ENTRY(0x025d, 0x700, 0),
+ {},
+ };
+ MODULE_DEVICE_TABLE(sdw, slave_id);
+ static struct sdw_driver slave_sdw_driver = {
+ .driver = {
+ .name = "slave_xxx",
+ .pm = &slave_runtime_pm,
+ },
+ .probe = slave_sdw_probe,
+ .remove = slave_sdw_remove,
+ .ops = &slave_slave_ops,
+ .id_table = slave_id,
+ };
+For capabilities, Bus implements API to read standard Slave MIPI properties
+and also provides callback in Slave ops for Slave driver to implement own
+function that provides capabilities information. Bus needs to know a set of
+Slave capabilities to program Slave registers and to control the Bus
+Future enhancements to be done
+ (1) Bulk Register Access (BRA) transfers.
+ (2) Multiple data lane support.
+SoundWire MIPI specification 1.1 is available at:
+SoundWire MIPI DisCo (Discovery and Configuration) specification is
+available at:
+(publicly accessible with registration or directly accessible to MIPI
+MIPI Alliance Manufacturer ID Page:
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