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SubjectRe: [PATCH] leaking_addresses: add generic 32-bit support
The script attempts to detect the architecture it's running upon; as of now,
we explicitly support x86_64, PPC64 and x86_32.
If it's one of them, we proceed "normally". If we fail to detect the arch,
we fallback to 64-bit scanning, unless the user has passed either of these
option switches: "--opt-32bit" and/or "--page-offset-32bit=<val>".

If so, we switch to scanning for leaked addresses based on the value of
PAGE_OFFSET (via an auto-detected or fallback mechanism).

As of now, we have code (or "rules") to detect special cases for x86_64 and PPC64
(in the get_address_re sub). Also, we now have also builtin "stubs", for lack of a better term, where additional rules for other 64-bit arch's can be plugged into the code,
in future, as applicable.

Signed-off-by: Kaiwan N Billimoria <kaiwan.billimoria@gmail.com>

---
scripts/leaking_addresses.pl | 190 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
1 file changed, 156 insertions(+), 34 deletions(-)

This patch is based on Tobin's suggestions and my replies to them (see prev email in this thread).


diff --git a/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl b/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
index a29e13e577a7..b0807b3a3c7c 100755
--- a/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
+++ b/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
@@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
#!/usr/bin/env perl
#
# (c) 2017 Tobin C. Harding <me@tobin.cc>
-
+# (c) 2017 Kaiwan N Billimoria <kaiwan.billimoria@gmail.com>
# Licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL License version 2
#
-# leaking_addresses.pl: Scan 64 bit kernel for potential leaking addresses.
+# leaking_addresses.pl: Scan kernel for potential leaking addresses.
# - Scans dmesg output.
# - Walks directory tree and parses each file (for each directory in @DIRS).
#
@@ -32,11 +32,6 @@ my @DIRS = ('/proc', '/sys');
# Timer for parsing each file, in seconds.
my $TIMEOUT = 10;

-# Script can only grep for kernel addresses on the following architectures. If
-# your architecture is not listed here and has a grep'able kernel address please
-# consider submitting a patch.
-my @SUPPORTED_ARCHITECTURES = ('x86_64', 'ppc64');
-
# Command line options.
my $help = 0;
my $debug = 0;
@@ -48,7 +43,9 @@ my $suppress_dmesg = 0; # Don't show dmesg in output.
my $squash_by_path = 0; # Summary report grouped by absolute path.
my $squash_by_filename = 0; # Summary report grouped by filename.

-my $kernel_config_file = ""; # Kernel configuration file.
+my $opt_32_bit = 0; # Detect (only) 32-bit kernel leaking addresses.
+my $page_offset_32bit = 0; # 32-bit: value of CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET.
+my $kernel_config_file = ""; # Kernel configuration file.

# Do not parse these files (absolute path).
my @skip_parse_files_abs = ('/proc/kmsg',
@@ -104,10 +101,12 @@ Options:
--squash-by-path Show one result per unique path.
--squash-by-filename Show one result per unique filename.
--kernel-config-file=<file> Kernel configuration file (e.g /boot/config)
+ --opt-32bit Detect (only) 32-bit kernel leaking addresses.
+ --page-offset-32bit=<hex> PAGE_OFFSET value (for 32-bit kernels).
-d, --debug Display debugging output.
- -h, --help, --versionq Display this help and exit.
+ -h, --help, --version Display this help and exit.

-Scans the running (64 bit) kernel for potential leaking addresses.
+Scans the running kernel for potential leaking addresses.

EOM
exit($exitcode);
@@ -123,7 +122,9 @@ GetOptions(
'squash-by-path' => \$squash_by_path,
'squash-by-filename' => \$squash_by_filename,
'raw' => \$raw,
- 'kernel-config-file=s' => \$kernel_config_file,
+ 'opt-32bit' => \$opt_32_bit,
+ 'page-offset-32bit=o' => \$page_offset_32bit,
+ 'kernel-config-file=s' => \$kernel_config_file,
) or help(1);

help(0) if ($help);
@@ -139,16 +140,15 @@ if (!$input_raw and ($squash_by_path or $squash_by_filename)) {
exit(128);
}

-if (!is_supported_architecture()) {
- printf "\nScript does not support your architecture, sorry.\n";
- printf "\nCurrently we support: \n\n";
- foreach(@SUPPORTED_ARCHITECTURES) {
- printf "\t%s\n", $_;
- }
+show_detected_architecture() if $debug;

- my $archname = $Config{archname};
- printf "\n\$ perl -MConfig -e \'print \"\$Config{archname}\\n\"\'\n";
- printf "%s\n", $archname;
+if (!is_known_architecture()) {
+ printf STDERR "\nFATAL: Script does not recognize your architecture\n";
+
+ my $arch = `uname -m`;
+ chomp $arch;
+ printf "\n\$ uname -m\n";
+ printf "%s\n", $arch;

exit(129);
}
@@ -168,21 +168,45 @@ sub dprint
printf(STDERR @_) if $debug;
}

-sub is_supported_architecture
+sub is_known_architecture
{
- return (is_x86_64() or is_ppc64());
+ return (is_64bit() or is_32bit());
}

-sub is_x86_64
+sub is_32bit
{
- my $archname = $Config{archname};
+ # 32-bit actual case
+ if (is_ix86_32()) {
+ return 1;
+ }

- if ($archname =~ m/x86_64/) {
+ # 32-bit "forced" case (for any arch other than IA-32)
+ if ($opt_32_bit or $page_offset_32bit) {
return 1;
}
return 0;
}

+sub is_64bit
+{
+ return (is_x86_64() or is_ppc64() or is_arm64() or is_mips64());
+}
+
+sub is_x86_64
+{
+ is_arch("x86_64");
+}
+
+sub is_arm64
+{
+ is_arch("aarch64");
+}
+
+sub is_mips64
+{
+ is_arch("mips64");
+}
+
sub is_ppc64
{
my $archname = $Config{archname};
@@ -193,6 +217,47 @@ sub is_ppc64
return 0;
}

+sub is_ix86_32
+{
+ my $arch = `uname -m`;
+
+ chomp $arch;
+ if ($arch =~ m/i[3456]86/) {
+ return 1;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+sub is_arch
+{
+ my ($desc) = @_;
+ my $arch = `uname -m`;
+
+ chomp $arch;
+ if ($arch eq $desc) {
+ return 1;
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+sub show_detected_architecture
+{
+ printf "Detected architecture: ";
+ if (is_32bit()) {
+ printf "32 bit\n";
+ } elsif (is_x86_64()) {
+ printf "x86_64\n";
+ } elsif (is_ppc64()) {
+ printf "PPC64\n";
+ } elsif (is_arm64()) {
+ printf "ARM64\n";
+ } elsif (is_mips64()) {
+ printf "MIPS64\n";
+ } else {
+ printf "failed to detect architecture\n"
+ }
+}
+
# gets config option value from kernel config file
sub get_kernel_config_option
{
@@ -212,7 +277,6 @@ sub get_kernel_config_option
} else {
@config_files = ($tmp_file);
}
-
} else {
my $file = '/boot/config-' . `uname -r`;
chomp $file;
@@ -220,7 +284,6 @@ sub get_kernel_config_option
}

foreach my $file (@config_files) {
- dprint("parsing config file: %s\n", $file);
$value = option_from_file($option, $file);
if ($value ne "") {
last;
@@ -258,6 +321,14 @@ sub is_false_positive
{
my ($match) = @_;

+ # 32 bit architectures, actual or forced
+
+ if (is_32bit()) {
+ return is_false_positive_32bit($match);
+ }
+
+ # 64 bit architectures
+
if ($match =~ '\b(0x)?(f|F){16}\b' or
$match =~ '\b(0x)?0{16}\b') {
return 1;
@@ -281,6 +352,58 @@ sub is_in_vsyscall_memory_region
return ($hex >= $region_min and $hex <= $region_max);
}

+sub is_false_positive_32bit
+{
+ my ($match) = @_;
+ state $page_offset = get_page_offset(); # only gets called once
+
+ if ($match =~ '\b(0x)?(f|F){8}\b') {
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ my $addr32 = hex($match);
+ if ($addr32 < $page_offset) {
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+sub get_page_offset
+{
+ my $page_offset;
+ my $default_offset = hex("0xc0000000");
+ my @config_files;
+
+ # Allow --page-offset-32bit to override.
+ if ($page_offset_32bit != 0) {
+ return $page_offset_32bit;
+ }
+
+ $page_offset = get_kernel_config_option('CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET');
+ return $default_offset;
+}
+
+sub parse_kernel_config_file
+{
+ my ($file) = @_;
+ my $config = 'CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET';
+ my $str = "";
+ my $val = "";
+
+ open(my $fh, "<", $file) or return "";
+ while (my $line = <$fh> ) {
+ if ($line =~ /^$config/) {
+ ($str, $val) = split /=/, $line;
+ chomp($val);
+ last;
+ }
+ }
+
+ close $fh;
+ return $val;
+}
+
# True if argument potentially contains a kernel address.
sub may_leak_address
{
@@ -300,8 +423,6 @@ sub may_leak_address
}

$address_re = get_address_re();
- dprint("Kernel address regular expression: %s\n", $address_re);
-
while (/($address_re)/g) {
if (!is_false_positive($1)) {
return 1;
@@ -313,16 +434,17 @@ sub may_leak_address

sub get_address_re
{
- my $re;
+ my $re = "";

if (is_x86_64()) {
$re = get_x86_64_re();
} elsif (is_ppc64()) {
$re = '\b(0x)?[89abcdef]00[[:xdigit:]]{13}\b';
- }
-
- if ($re eq "") {
- print STDERR "$0: failed to build kernel address regular expression\n";
+ ###
+ # Any special cases for other arch's go below this line
+ ###
+ } else { # nothing? then we assume it's a generic 32-bit
+ $re = '\b(0x)?[[:xdigit:]]{8}\b';
}

return $re;
--
2.14.3

Thanks,
Kaiwan.


On Mon, 18 Dec 2017 16:57:46 +1100
"Tobin C. Harding" <me@tobin.cc> wrote:

> On Mon, Dec 18, 2017 at 09:24:47AM +0530, kaiwan.billimoria@gmail.com
> wrote:
> > The script attempts to detect the architecture it's running upon;
> > as of now, we explicitly support x86_64, PPC64 and x86_32.
> > If it's one of them, we proceed "normally". If we fail to detect
> > the arch, we fallback to 64-bit scanning, unless the user has
> > passed either of these option switches: "--32-bit" and/or
> > "--page-offset-32bit=<val>".
> >
> > If so, we switch to scanning for leaked addresses based on the
> > value of PAGE_OFFSET (via an auto-detected or fallback mechanism).
> >
> > As of now, we have code (or "rules") to detect special cases for
> > x86_64 and ppc64 (in the get_address_re sub). Also, we now have
> > also builtin "stubs", for lack of a better term, where additional
> > rules for other 64-bit arch's can be plugged in, in future, as
> > applicable.
> >
> > Signed-off-by: Kaiwan N Billimoria <kaiwan.billimoria@gmail.com>
> > ---
> >
> > This is a patch based on Tobin's latest tree, 'leaks' branch.
> > Applies on top of commit 6c3942594657 (leaking_addresses: add
> > support for 5 page table levels (origin/leaks))
>
> That commit is not the tip of the branch. leaks branch is currently at
>
> commit 266891c62bf0 (leaking_addresses: add support for 5 page table
> levels)
>
> >
> > Thanks,
> > Kaiwan.
> >
> > scripts/leaking_addresses.pl | 213
> > +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++------ 1 file changed, 184
> > insertions(+), 29 deletions(-)
> >
> > diff --git a/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
> > b/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl index a29e13e577a7..a667f243c95b
> > 100755 --- a/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
> > +++ b/scripts/leaking_addresses.pl
> > @@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
> > #!/usr/bin/env perl
> > #
> > # (c) 2017 Tobin C. Harding <me@tobin.cc>
> > -
> > +# (c) 2017 Kaiwan N Billimoria <kaiwan.billimoria@gmail.com>
> > # Licensed under the terms of the GNU GPL License version 2
> > #
> > -# leaking_addresses.pl: Scan 64 bit kernel for potential leaking
> > addresses. +# leaking_addresses.pl: Scan kernel for potential
> > leaking addresses. # - Scans dmesg output.
> > # - Walks directory tree and parses each file (for each directory
> > in @DIRS). #
> > @@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ my $TIMEOUT = 10;
> > # Script can only grep for kernel addresses on the following
> > architectures. If # your architecture is not listed here and has a
> > grep'able kernel address please # consider submitting a patch.
> > -my @SUPPORTED_ARCHITECTURES = ('x86_64', 'ppc64');
> > +my @SUPPORTED_ARCHITECTURES = ('x86_64', 'ppc64', 'i[3456]86');
> >
> > # Command line options.
> > my $help = 0;
> > @@ -48,7 +48,9 @@ my $suppress_dmesg = 0; # Don't
> > show dmesg in output. my $squash_by_path = 0; #
> > Summary report grouped by absolute path. my $squash_by_filename =
> > 0; # Summary report grouped by filename.
> > -my $kernel_config_file = ""; # Kernel configuration file.
> > +my $opt_32_bit = 0; # Detect 32-bit kernel leaking
> > addresses. +my $page_offset_32bit = 0; # 32-bit: value of
> > CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET. +my $kernel_config_file = ""; # Kernel
> > configuration file.
> > # Do not parse these files (absolute path).
> > my @skip_parse_files_abs = ('/proc/kmsg',
> > @@ -97,17 +99,19 @@ Version: $V
> >
> > Options:
> >
> > - -o, --output-raw=<file> Save results for future
> > processing.
> > - -i, --input-raw=<file> Read results from file
> > instead of scanning.
> > - --raw Show raw results (default).
> > - --suppress-dmesg Do not show dmesg results.
> > - --squash-by-path Show one result per unique
> > path.
> > - --squash-by-filename Show one result per unique
> > filename.
> > - --kernel-config-file=<file> Kernel configuration file
> > (e.g /boot/config)
> > - -d, --debug Display debugging output.
> > - -h, --help, --versionq Display this help and exit.
> > + -o, --output-raw=<file> Save results for future
> > processing.
> > + -i, --input-raw=<file> Read results from file
> > instead of scanning.
> > + --raw Show raw results
> > (default).
> > + --suppress-dmesg Do not show dmesg
> > results.
> > + --squash-by-path Show one result per
> > unique path.
> > + --squash-by-filename Show one result per
> > unique filename.
> > + --32-bit Detect 32-bit kernel
> > leaking addresses.
> > + --page-offset-32bit=<hex> PAGE_OFFSET value (for
> > 32-bit kernels).
> > + --kernel-config-file=<file> Kernel configuration file
> > (e.g /boot/config).
> > + -d, --debug Display debugging output.
> > + -h, --help, --version Display this help and
> > exit.
>
> We don't need this, it's already indented.
>
> > -Scans the running (64 bit) kernel for potential leaking addresses.
> > +Scans the running kernel for potential leaking addresses.
> >
> > EOM
> > exit($exitcode);
> > @@ -123,7 +127,9 @@ GetOptions(
> > 'squash-by-path' => \$squash_by_path,
> > 'squash-by-filename' => \$squash_by_filename,
> > 'raw' => \$raw,
> > - 'kernel-config-file=s' => \$kernel_config_file,
> > + '32-bit' => \$opt_32_bit,
> > + 'page-offset-32bit=o' => \$page_offset_32bit,
> > + 'kernel-config-file=s' => \$kernel_config_file,
>
> Perhaps
>
> $opt_32bit so as to be consistent.
>
> > ) or help(1);
> >
> > help(0) if ($help);
> > @@ -139,11 +145,16 @@ if (!$input_raw and ($squash_by_path or
> > $squash_by_filename)) { exit(128);
> > }
> >
> > -if (!is_supported_architecture()) {
> > - printf "\nScript does not support your architecture,
> > sorry.\n";
> > - printf "\nCurrently we support: \n\n";
> > - foreach(@SUPPORTED_ARCHITECTURES) {
> > - printf "\t%s\n", $_;
> > +show_detected_architecture() if $debug;
> > +
> > +if (!is_known_architecture()) {
> > + printf STDERR "\n*** WARNING! Script does not recognize
> > your architecture ***\n";
> > + if ($opt_32_bit or $page_offset_32bit) {
> > + printf STDERR "Scanning for 32-bit leaking kernel
> > addresses\n\n";
> > + } else {
> > + printf STDERR "Scanning for 64-bit leaking kernel
> > addresses\n";
> > + printf STDERR "If you\'d rather scan for 32-bit
> > addresses, use the ";
> > + printf STDERR "--32-bit (and --page-offset-32bit=)
> > option switch(es).\n\n"; }
> >
> > my $archname = $Config{archname};
> > @@ -168,9 +179,14 @@ sub dprint
> > printf(STDERR @_) if $debug;
> > }
> >
> > -sub is_supported_architecture
> > +sub is_known_architecture
> > +{
> > + return (is_64bit() or is_ix86_32());
> > +}
> > +
> > +sub is_64bit
> > {
> > - return (is_x86_64() or is_ppc64());
> > + return (is_x86_64() or is_ppc64() or is_arm64() or
> > is_mips64()); }
>
> Perhaps we could have
>
> sub is_32bit
> {
> if ($opt_32bit or $page_offset_32bit) {
> return 1;
> }
>
> if (is_ix86_32()) {
> return 1;
> }
> return 0;
> }
>
> >
> > sub is_x86_64
> > @@ -193,6 +209,50 @@ sub is_ppc64
> > return 0;
> > }
> >
> > +sub is_arm64
> > +{
> > + if (`uname -m` eq "aarch64") {
> > + return 1;
> > + }
> > + return 0;
> > +}
> > +
> > +sub is_mips64
> > +{
> > + if (`uname -m` eq "mips64") {
> > + return 1;
> > + }
> > + return 0;
> > +}
> > +
> > +sub is_ix86_32
> > +{
> > + my $archname = $Config{archname};
> > +
> > + if ($archname =~ m/i[3456]86-linux/) {
> > + return 1;
> > + }
> > + return 0;
> > +}
>
> Why do we use $Config{archname} here and `uname -m` above? Can we use
> just one of them? If so we could have a helper function
>
> sub is_arch()
> {
> my ($desc) = @_;
>
> if (`uname -m` eq $desc) {
> return 1;
> }
> return 0;
> }
>
> and
>
> is_mips64 { is_arch("mips64"); }
> ...
>
> > +sub show_detected_architecture
> > +{
> > + printf "Detected architecture: ";
> > + if (is_ix86_32()) {
> > + printf "32 bit x86\n";
> > + } elsif (is_x86_64()) {
> > + printf "x86_64\n";
> > + } elsif (is_ppc64()) {
> > + printf "ppc64\n";
>
> We probably should use capitals for PPC64 since ARM and MIPS get
> capitals.
>
> > + } elsif (is_arm64()) {
> > + printf "ARM64\n";
> > + } elsif (is_mips64()) {
> > + printf "MIPS64\n";
> > + } else {
> > + printf "failed to detect architecture\n"
> > + }
> > +}
> > +
> > # gets config option value from kernel config file
> > sub get_kernel_config_option
> > {
> > @@ -220,7 +280,8 @@ sub get_kernel_config_option
> > }
> >
> > foreach my $file (@config_files) {
> > - dprint("parsing config file: %s\n", $file);
> > + printf("file: %s\n", $file) if $debug;
>
> We should actually just remove this debugging line all together, it
> will be overly verbose and not that useful (see below).
>
> > $value = option_from_file($option, $file);
> > if ($value ne "") {
> > last;
> > @@ -258,6 +319,14 @@ sub is_false_positive
> > {
> > my ($match) = @_;
> >
> > + # 32 bit architectures, actual or forced
> > +
> > + if (!is_64bit() and ($opt_32_bit or $page_offset_32bit)) {
> > + return is_false_positive_32bit($match);
> > + }
>
> and now we could have just
>
> if (is_32_bit()) {
> ...
>
> > +
> > + # 64 bit architectures
> > +
> > if ($match =~ '\b(0x)?(f|F){16}\b' or
> > $match =~ '\b(0x)?0{16}\b') {
> > return 1;
> > @@ -281,6 +350,91 @@ sub is_in_vsyscall_memory_region
> > return ($hex >= $region_min and $hex <= $region_max);
> > }
> >
> > +sub is_false_positive_32bit
> > +{
> > + my ($match) = @_;
> > + state $page_offset = get_page_offset(); # only gets called
> > once +
> > + if ($match =~ '\b(0x)?(f|F){8}\b') {
> > + return 1;
> > + }
> > +
> > + my $addr32 = eval hex($match);
>
> Remember we don't like 'eval' :) Just make sure your code does not
> generate warnings in the first place.
>
> > + if ($addr32 < $page_offset) {
> > + return 1;
> > + }
> > +
> > + return 0;
> > +}
> > +
> > +sub get_page_offset
> > +{
> > + my $page_offset;
> > + my $default_offset = hex("0xc0000000");
> > + my @config_files;
> > +
> > + # Allow --page-offset-32bit to override.
> > + if ($page_offset_32bit != 0) {
> > + return $page_offset_32bit;
> > + }
>
> We don't need the rest of this function since we now have
>
> get_kernel_config_option('CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET');
>
> And using this for CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET after we have done so for
> CONFIG_PGTABLE_LEVELS is why I suggest above removing debugging line.
>
> > +
> > + # Allow --kernel-config-file to override.
> > + if ($kernel_config_file ne "") {
> > + @config_files = ($kernel_config_file);
> > + } else {
> > + my $config_file = '/boot/config-' . `uname -r`;
> > + @config_files = ($config_file, '/boot/config');
> > + }
> > +
> > + if (-R "/proc/config.gz") {
> > + my $tmp_file = "/tmp/tmpkconf";
> > + if (system("gunzip < /proc/config.gz > $tmp_file"))
> > {
> > + dprint " parse_kernel_config:
> > system(gunzip...) failed\n";
> > + system("rm -f $tmp_file 2>/dev/null");
> > + } else {
> > + $page_offset =
> > parse_kernel_config_file($tmp_file);
> > + system("rm -f $tmp_file");
> > + if ($page_offset ne "") {
> > + return hex($page_offset);
> > + }
> > + }
> > + }
> > +
> > + foreach my $config_file (@config_files) {
> > + chomp $config_file;
> > + $page_offset =
> > parse_kernel_config_file($config_file);
> > + if ($page_offset ne "") {
> > + return hex($page_offset);
> > + }
> > + }
> > +
> > + printf STDERR "\nFailed to parse kernel config files\n";
> > + printf STDERR "*** NOTE ***\n";
> > + printf STDERR "Falling back to PAGE_OFFSET = %#x\n\n",
> > $default_offset; +
> > + return $default_offset;
> > +}
> > +
> > +sub parse_kernel_config_file
> > +{
> > + my ($file) = @_;
> > + my $config = 'CONFIG_PAGE_OFFSET';
> > + my $str = "";
> > + my $val = "";
> > +
> > + open(my $fh, "<", $file) or return "";
> > + while (my $line = <$fh> ) {
> > + if ($line =~ /^$config/) {
> > + ($str, $val) = split /=/, $line;
> > + chomp($val);
> > + last;
> > + }
> > + }
> > +
> > + close $fh;
> > + return $val;
> > +}
> > +
> > # True if argument potentially contains a kernel address.
> > sub may_leak_address
> > {
> > @@ -300,7 +454,7 @@ sub may_leak_address
> > }
> >
> > $address_re = get_address_re();
> > - dprint("Kernel address regular expression: %s\n",
> > $address_re); +# dprint("Kernel address regular expression:
> > %s\n", $address_re);
>
> Just remove this line altogether (I assume it annoyed you while
> debugging).
>
> > while (/($address_re)/g) {
> > if (!is_false_positive($1)) {
> > @@ -313,16 +467,17 @@ sub may_leak_address
> >
> > sub get_address_re
> > {
> > - my $re;
> > + my $re = "";
> >
> > if (is_x86_64()) {
> > $re = get_x86_64_re();
> > } elsif (is_ppc64()) {
> > $re = '\b(0x)?[89abcdef]00[[:xdigit:]]{13}\b';
>
> } elsif (is_32bit())
> $re = '\b(0x)?[[:xdigit:]]{8}\b';
> > - }
> > -
> > - if ($re eq "") {
> > - print STDERR "$0: failed to build kernel address
> > regular expression\n";
>
> And then we can leave this as is.
>
> > + ###
> > + # Any special cases for other arch's go below this line
> > + ###
> > + } else { # nothing? then we assume it's a generic 32-bit
> > + $re = '\b(0x)?[[:xdigit:]]{8}\b';
> > }
> >
> > return $re;
> > --
> > 2.14.3
>
> thanks,
> Tobin.

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