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Subject[RFC PATCH v1 2/2] printk: external log buffer (CONFIG_LOGBUFFER)
Date
This debug feature provides a convenient way to collect log entries across
multiple, warmboot cycles and to share those entries with a boot loader.
It allows the kernel to use an external buffer for kernel log messages and
is controlled by an optional command line parameter. The buffer can contain
existing log messages from previous boot cycles and/or the bootloader. The
command line parameter was chosen for flexibility, cross arch portability,
and the ability to dynamically enable/disable this feature. The parameter
specifies the address of a control block used to replace the default log
buffer. Existing bootloader and kernel log messages are kept, in order,
inside the new buffer. After a boot that preserves the buffer contents, a
bootloader can display both kernel and bootloader log entries from
multiple, previous boots. It also allows the kernel to display bootloader
log entries along with its own messages.

This feature is intended for debug purposes and has no effect unless the
command line parameter is specified. Further, it validates the passed
control block carefully and if any checks fail, it falls back to the
default behaviour. As such, it can be left enabled by default.

Memory Reservation
------------------
This feature expects the bootloader to reserve/preserve the shared buffer
memory. This reservation needs to prevent the kernel from overwriting the
external log control block and log entries. In my testing, I've used the
'fdt' commands in uboot to dynamically inject reserved memory regions via
the DT to the kernel.

Based on the initial work of Wolfgang Denk and Igor Lisitsin [1].
Also based on work by: Alexander Streit <Alexander.Streit@continental-corporation.com>

[1] http://git.denx.de/?p=linux-2.6-denx.git;a=commitdiff;h=212f61c7fd3b952a81d1459dd32a86a32ddfd4ce

Signed-off-by: Sean Hudson <sean_hudson@mentor.com>
---
init/Kconfig | 12 +++
init/main.c | 2 +
kernel/printk/printk.c | 267 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--
3 files changed, 275 insertions(+), 6 deletions(-)

diff --git a/init/Kconfig b/init/Kconfig
index cac3f09..746183b 100644
--- a/init/Kconfig
+++ b/init/Kconfig
@@ -1493,6 +1493,18 @@ config PRINTK
very difficult to diagnose system problems, saying N here is
strongly discouraged.

+config LOGBUFFER
+ bool "External logbuffer" if PRINTK
+ default n
+ depends on PRINTK
+ help
+ This option enables support for an alternative, "external" printk log
+ buffer. If memory contents are preserved, e.g. after a warmboot, this
+ provides a known location for the boot loader to read and display printk
+ entries from the kernel. If desired, the bootloader can write its own
+ log entries which the kernel will display with its own log entries.
+ Further, this capability can be used across multiple warmboot cycles.
+
config PRINTK_NMI
def_bool y
depends on PRINTK
diff --git a/init/main.c b/init/main.c
index a8a58e2..4a5913c 100644
--- a/init/main.c
+++ b/init/main.c
@@ -93,6 +93,7 @@ static int kernel_init(void *);
extern void init_IRQ(void);
extern void fork_init(void);
extern void radix_tree_init(void);
+extern void setup_ext_logbuff(void);

/*
* Debug helper: via this flag we know that we are in 'early bootup code'
@@ -535,6 +536,7 @@ asmlinkage __visible void __init start_kernel(void)
sort_main_extable();
trap_init();
mm_init();
+ setup_ext_logbuff();

/*
* Set up the scheduler prior starting any interrupts (such as the
diff --git a/kernel/printk/printk.c b/kernel/printk/printk.c
index 7a441f5..017b4d4 100644
--- a/kernel/printk/printk.c
+++ b/kernel/printk/printk.c
@@ -331,17 +331,17 @@ enum log_flags {
};

struct printk_log {
- u64 ts_nsec; /* timestamp in nanoseconds */
+#ifdef CONFIG_LOGBUFFER
+ u32 log_magic; /* sanity check number */
+#endif
u16 len; /* length of entire record */
u16 text_len; /* length of text buffer */
u16 dict_len; /* length of dictionary buffer */
u8 facility; /* syslog facility */
u8 flags:5; /* internal record flags */
u8 level:3; /* syslog level */
+ u64 ts_nsec; /* timestamp in nanoseconds */
}
-#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS
-__packed __aligned(4)
-#endif
;

/*
@@ -366,7 +366,14 @@ DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(log_wait);
static char __log_buf[__LOG_BUF_LEN] __aligned(LOG_ALIGN);

/*
- * This control block collects tracking offsets for the log.
+ * This control block collects tracking offsets for the log into a single
+ * place. It also facilitates pointing the log to another location, and,
+ * when combined with the CONFIG_LOGBUFFER feature, it allows log sharing
+ * between the bootloader and the kernel.
+ *
+ * NOTE:
+ * By convention, the control block and the log buffer are contiguous.
+ * This requirement can be relaxed, if desired.
*/
struct lcb_t {
/* Pointer to log buffer space and length of space */
@@ -395,13 +402,42 @@ struct lcb_t {
/* the next printk record to read after the last 'clear' command */
u64 clear_seq;
u32 clear_idx;
-} lcb_t;
+
+#ifdef CONFIG_LOGBUFFER
+ u32 log_version;
+ u32 lcb_padded_len;
+ u32 lcb_size;
+ u32 log_hdr_size;
+ phys_addr_t log_phys_addr;
+ u32 lcb_magic;
+#endif
+};
+
+/* Log control block */
+#ifdef CONFIG_LOGBUFFER
+
+/*
+ * The bootloader may write an unexpected version/format of the log, so
+ * these values provide a way to check that the format agrees.
+ */
+#define LOGBUFF_MAGIC 0xc0de4ced
+#define LOGBUFF_LOG_VERSION 3
+#define LOGBUFF_CB_PADDED_LENGTH 1024

static struct lcb_t __lcb = {
+ __log_buf, __LOG_BUF_LEN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
+ LOGBUFF_LOG_VERSION, LOGBUFF_CB_PADDED_LENGTH, sizeof(struct lcb_t),
+ sizeof(struct printk_log), 0, LOGBUFF_MAGIC
+};
+#else
+static struct lcb_t __lcb = {
__log_buf, __LOG_BUF_LEN, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0 };
+#endif /* CONFIG_LOGBUFFER */

static struct lcb_t *lcb = &__lcb;

+void setup_ext_logbuff(void);
+
/* Return log buffer address */
char *log_buf_addr_get(void)
{
@@ -596,6 +632,9 @@ static int log_store(int facility, int level,
msg->ts_nsec = local_clock();
memset(log_dict(msg) + dict_len, 0, pad_len);
msg->len = size;
+#ifdef CONFIG_LOGBUFFER
+ msg->log_magic = LOGBUFF_MAGIC;
+#endif

/* insert message */
lcb->log_next_idx += msg->len;
@@ -1070,6 +1109,21 @@ static void __init log_buf_add_cpu(void)
static inline void log_buf_add_cpu(void) {}
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */

+#ifdef CONFIG_LOGBUFFER
+/* Bootloader log control block address passed in on the kernel cmdline */
+phys_addr_t lcb_phys_addr __initdata;
+
+/* save requested lcb_phys_addr since it's too early to process it */
+static int __init lcb_phys_addr_setup(char *str)
+{
+ lcb_phys_addr = memparse(str, &str);
+
+ return 0;
+}
+
+early_param("lcb_phys_addr", lcb_phys_addr_setup);
+#endif
+
void __init setup_log_buf(int early)
{
unsigned long flags;
@@ -3328,4 +3382,205 @@ void show_regs_print_info(const char *log_lvl)
log_lvl, current, task_stack_page(current));
}

+#ifdef CONFIG_LOGBUFFER
+
+static struct printk_log *log_from_idx_and_base(const char *const base,
+ const u32 idx)
+{
+ struct printk_log *msg = (struct printk_log *)(base + idx);
+
+ if (!msg->len || msg->log_magic != LOGBUFF_MAGIC)
+ return (struct printk_log *)base;
+ return msg;
+}
+
+static u32 log_next_idx_from_idx(const char *const base, const u32 idx)
+{
+ struct printk_log const *const msg = (struct printk_log *)(base + idx);
+
+ if (!msg->len || msg->log_magic != LOGBUFF_MAGIC)
+ return 0;
+ return idx + msg->len;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The bootloader may write a different version of the log than expected.
+ * So, check that the incoming lcb matches that values that the kernel
+ * expects.
+ */
+static bool is_valid_external_cb(const struct lcb_t * const new_lcb)
+{
+ /* Validate the new control buffer */
+ return (new_lcb &&
+ new_lcb->log_version == LOGBUFF_LOG_VERSION &&
+ new_lcb->lcb_magic == LOGBUFF_MAGIC &&
+ new_lcb->lcb_padded_len == LOGBUFF_CB_PADDED_LENGTH &&
+ new_lcb->lcb_size == sizeof(struct lcb_t) &&
+ new_lcb->log_hdr_size == sizeof(struct printk_log) &&
+ new_lcb->lcb_size <= new_lcb->lcb_padded_len &&
+ new_lcb->log_first_idx <= new_lcb->log_buf_len &&
+ new_lcb->log_next_idx <= new_lcb->log_buf_len &&
+ new_lcb->syslog_idx <= new_lcb->log_buf_len &&
+ new_lcb->console_idx <= new_lcb->log_buf_len &&
+ new_lcb->clear_idx <= new_lcb->log_buf_len &&
+ new_lcb->log_phys_addr != 0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Copy the kernel log entries that have occurred so far in this boot cycle
+ * into the new log buffer location found in the log control block specified
+ * on the kernel command line. Then switch to using that location from this
+ * point onward.
+ * To ensure correctness, we must consider :
+ * - the bootloader may be using a different structure
+ * - size of the external buffer may not match the size of the default
+ * - an unknown number of bootloader log entries may be present
+ * - an unknown number of kernel log entries may be present
+ * - wrapping of the bootloader log may have already occurred (unlikely)
+ * - wrapping of the kernel log may have already occurred (unlikely)
+ *
+ * Memory Reservation
+ * ------------------
+ * This feature expects the bootloader to reserve/preserve the shared buffer
+ * memory. This reservation needs to prevent the kernel from overwriting the
+ * external log control block and log entries. In my testing, I've used the
+ * 'fdt' commands in uboot to dynamically inject reserved memory regions via
+ * the DT to the kernel.
+ *
+ */
+void __init setup_ext_logbuff(void)
+{
+ struct printk_log *nextblmsg, *currkmsg;
+ u64 currkmsg_seq;
+ u32 currkmsg_idx, offset_idx;
+ struct lcb_t *new_lcb;
+ unsigned long flags;
+ int ret;
+
+ if (!lcb_phys_addr)
+ return;
+
+ new_lcb = phys_to_virt(lcb_phys_addr);
+ new_lcb->log_buf = phys_to_virt(new_lcb->log_phys_addr);
+
+ /* Validate the new control buffer */
+ if (!is_valid_external_cb(new_lcb)) {
+ pr_warn("log : External log cb failed validation. Ignored\n");
+ pr_debug
+ ("Kernel logbuffer of size %u at 0x%p (virtual address)\n",
+ lcb->log_buf_len, lcb->log_buf);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ if (!new_log_buf_len)
+ pr_warn("log_buf_len ignored in favor of external log\n");
+
+ pr_debug
+ ("log : Replacing cb @ 0x%p of %lu bytes with cb @ 0x%p of %d/%d bytes\n",
+ lcb, sizeof(struct lcb_t), new_lcb, new_lcb->lcb_size,
+ new_lcb->lcb_padded_len);
+
+ /* Capture the virtual address for the buffer */
+ new_lcb->log_buf = phys_to_virt(new_lcb->log_phys_addr);
+ pr_debug("log : Replacing buffer @ 0x%p (VA) of %d bytes with one @ 0x%p (VA) of %d bytes\n",
+ lcb->log_buf, lcb->log_buf_len, new_lcb->log_buf,
+ new_lcb->log_buf_len);
+
+ raw_spin_lock_irqsave(&logbuf_lock, flags);
+
+ /*
+ * Offset sequence numbers by the number of existing bootloader msgs
+ * NOTE: Functions above handle if the first seq becomes > than these
+ */
+ if (lcb->syslog_seq != new_lcb->log_first_seq)
+ new_lcb->syslog_seq = lcb->syslog_seq + new_lcb->log_next_seq;
+ if (lcb->console_seq != new_lcb->log_first_seq)
+ new_lcb->console_seq = lcb->console_seq + new_lcb->log_next_seq;
+ if (lcb->clear_seq != new_lcb->log_first_seq)
+ new_lcb->clear_seq = lcb->clear_seq + new_lcb->log_next_seq;
+
+ /* Copy kernel specific data into the new/shared control block. */
+ new_lcb->syslog_prev = lcb->syslog_prev;
+ new_lcb->syslog_partial = lcb->syslog_partial;
+ new_lcb->console_prev = lcb->console_prev;
+
+ /*
+ * Copy existing entries one at a time into the external buffer space.
+ * The new CB will incrementally update as each kernel entry is added.
+ * The existing CB will not be modified.
+ */
+ for (currkmsg_seq = lcb->log_first_seq,
+ currkmsg_idx = lcb->log_first_idx;
+ currkmsg_seq <= lcb->log_next_seq &&
+ currkmsg_idx < lcb->log_buf_len;
+ currkmsg_idx = log_next(currkmsg_idx), currkmsg_seq++) {
+ currkmsg = log_from_idx_and_base(lcb->log_buf, currkmsg_idx);
+
+ /* If necessary, free bl entries to fit kernel entries */
+ while (new_lcb->log_first_seq < new_lcb->log_next_seq) {
+ u32 free;
+
+ if (new_lcb->log_next_idx > new_lcb->log_first_idx)
+ free = max(new_lcb->log_buf_len -
+ new_lcb->log_next_idx,
+ new_lcb->log_first_idx);
+ else
+ free = new_lcb->log_first_idx -
+ new_lcb->log_next_idx;
+
+ if (free > currkmsg->len + sizeof(struct printk_log))
+ break;
+
+ /* Drop oldest messages until there is enough space */
+ new_lcb->log_first_idx =
+ log_next_idx_from_idx(new_lcb->log_buf,
+ new_lcb->log_first_idx);
+ new_lcb->log_first_seq++;
+ }
+
+ nextblmsg = (struct printk_log *)
+ (new_lcb->log_buf + new_lcb->log_next_idx);
+
+ /* Check if the next record will fit along with a wrap record */
+ if (new_lcb->log_next_idx + currkmsg->len +
+ sizeof(struct printk_log) >= new_lcb->log_buf_len) {
+ memset(nextblmsg, 0, sizeof(struct printk_log));
+ nextblmsg = (struct printk_log *)new_lcb->log_buf;
+ new_lcb->log_next_idx = 0;
+ }
+ /* Copy kernel message to bootloader buffer */
+ memcpy(nextblmsg, currkmsg, currkmsg->len);
+
+ /* Before moving to the next kernel entry, adjust indices */
+ if (currkmsg_seq == lcb->log_first_seq)
+ offset_idx = new_lcb->log_first_seq;
+ else
+ offset_idx = new_lcb->log_next_idx;
+
+ if (currkmsg_seq == lcb->syslog_seq)
+ new_lcb->syslog_idx = offset_idx;
+ if (currkmsg_seq == lcb->console_seq)
+ new_lcb->console_idx = offset_idx;
+ if (currkmsg_seq == lcb->clear_seq)
+ new_lcb->clear_idx = offset_idx;
+
+ /* Update next offset and sequence */
+ if (currkmsg_seq < lcb->log_next_seq) {
+ new_lcb->log_next_idx += currkmsg->len;
+ new_lcb->log_next_seq++;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* Overwrite the default lcb pointer, buffer pointer, and length. */
+ lcb = new_lcb;
+ lcb->log_buf = (char *)new_lcb->log_buf;
+ lcb->log_buf_len = new_lcb->log_buf_len;
+
+ raw_spin_unlock_irqrestore(&logbuf_lock, flags);
+
+ pr_info("Kernel logbuffer of size %u at 0x%p (virtual address)\n",
+ lcb->log_buf_len, lcb->log_buf);
+}
+#endif
+
#endif
--
1.9.1

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