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SubjectRe: [PATCH v2] kernel: add kcov code coverage
On Mon, Jan 18, 2016 at 8:44 PM, Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com> wrote:
> On Mon, Jan 18, 2016 at 3:13 PM, Mark Rutland <mark.rutland@arm.com> wrote:
>> On Fri, Jan 15, 2016 at 03:07:59PM +0100, Dmitry Vyukov wrote:
>>> On Fri, Jan 15, 2016 at 2:05 PM, Andrey Ryabinin <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com> wrote:
>>> > 2016-01-14 17:30 GMT+03:00 Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>:
>>> >> On Thu, Jan 14, 2016 at 11:50 AM, Andrey Ryabinin
>>> >> <ryabinin.a.a@gmail.com> wrote:
>>> >>> 2016-01-13 15:48 GMT+03:00 Dmitry Vyukov <dvyukov@google.com>:
>>> >>>
>>> >>>> + /* Read number of PCs collected. */
>>> >>>> + n = __atomic_load_n(&cover[0], __ATOMIC_RELAXED);
>>> >>>> + /* PCs are shorten to uint32_t, so we need to restore the upper part. */
>>> >>>> + for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
>>> >>>> + printf("0xffffffff%0lx\n", (unsigned long)cover[i + 1]);
>>> >>
>>> >> Thanks for the review!
>>> >> Mailed v3 with fixes.
>>> >> Comments inline.
>>> >>
>>> >>> This works only for x86-64.
>>> >>> Probably there is no simple way to make this arch-independent with
>>> >>> 32-bit values.
>>> >>
>>> >> We probably could add an ioctl that returns base of the stripped PCs.
>>> >
>>> > You forgot about modules. With stripped PCs you'll start mixing
>>> > kernel's and module's PC (if distance between module and kernel > 4G).
>>>
>>> It's just that on x86 text and modules are within 4GB.
>>>
>>> I've checked that on arm64 it also seems to be the case:
>>>
>>> 48 * The module space lives between the addresses given by TASK_SIZE
>>> 49 * and PAGE_OFFSET - it must be within 128MB of the kernel text.
>>> 50 */
>>> 54 #define MODULES_END (PAGE_OFFSET)
>>> 55 #define MODULES_VADDR (MODULES_END - SZ_64M)
>>
>> This won't necessarily remain true. With kASLR [1,2] the modules and
>> kernel might be located anywhere in the vmalloc area, independently.
>> Using PLTs removes the +/-128MB restriction, so they may be placed
>> anywhere in the vmalloc area.
>>
>> On my defconfig kernel (4KiB, 39-bit VA) today, that area is ~246GiB wide:
>>
>> [ 0.000000] Virtual kernel memory layout:
>> [ 0.000000] vmalloc : 0xffffff8000000000 - 0xffffffbdbfff0000 ( 246 GB)
>> [ 0.000000] vmemmap : 0xffffffbdc0000000 - 0xffffffbfc0000000 ( 8 GB maximum)
>> [ 0.000000] 0xffffffbdc2000000 - 0xffffffbde8000000 ( 608 MB actual)
>> [ 0.000000] fixed : 0xffffffbffa7fd000 - 0xffffffbffac00000 ( 4108 KB)
>> [ 0.000000] PCI I/O : 0xffffffbffae00000 - 0xffffffbffbe00000 ( 16 MB)
>> [ 0.000000] modules : 0xffffffbffc000000 - 0xffffffc000000000 ( 64 MB)
>> [ 0.000000] memory : 0xffffffc000000000 - 0xffffffc980000000 ( 38912 MB)
>> [ 0.000000] .init : 0xffffffc000a00000 - 0xffffffc000a9c000 ( 624 KB)
>> [ 0.000000] .text : 0xffffffc000080000 - 0xffffffc000a00000 ( 9728 KB)
>> [ 0.000000] .data : 0xffffffc000a9c000 - 0xffffffc000b17a00 ( 495 KB)
>>
>> Kernels can be built with a 48-bit VA (and potentially larger in future
>> with ARMv8.2-A or later [3]). The vmalloc area (and hence the maximum
>> distances between modules and kernel) will increase grow with the VA
>> range.
>>
>> Thanks,
>> Mark.
>>
>> [1] http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/linux-arm-kernel/2016-January/398527.html
>> [2] http://lists.infradead.org/pipermail/linux-arm-kernel/2016-January/398534.html
>> [3] https://community.arm.com/groups/processors/blog/2016/01/05/armv8-a-architecture-evolution
>
>
> Thanks, Mark.
>
> I've got several comments regarding the 4-byte compressed PCs. We've
> also discussed this internally.
> As the result in v4 I made it possible to export both compressed
> 4-byte PCs and full 8-byte PCs.
> Now init ioctl accepts the following struct and kernel can say whether
> it will export 4- or 8-byte PCs:
>
> struct kcov_init_trace {
> unsigned long flags; /* In: reserved, must be 0. */
> unsigned long size; /* In: trace buffer size. */
> unsigned long version; /* Out: trace format, currently 1. */
> /*
> * Output.
> * pc_size can be 4 or 8. If pc_size = 4 on a 64-bit arch,
> * returned PCs are compressed by subtracting pc_base and then
> * truncating to 4 bytes.
> */
> unsigned long pc_size;
> unsigned long pc_base;
> };
>
> So for KASLR or other archs we can just export full 8-byte PCs.
>
> Regarding KASLR and dynamically loaded modules. I've looked at my
> use-case and concluded
> that most of the time I can work with "non-stable" PCs within a single
> VM. Whenever I need to
> store PCs persistently or send to another machine, I think I can
> "canonicalize" PCs using
> /proc/modules and /proc/kallsyms to something like (module hash,
> module offset). So kernel does
> not need to do this during coverage collection.

On second though, maybe it's better to just always export unsigned long PCs...
Need to measure how much memory coverage information consumes,
and how much slower it is with uint64 PCs. Maybe I can live with large PCs,
or maybe I can make syzkaller require !KASLR and compress PCs in user-space...
Need to think about this more.

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