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SubjectRe: [PATCH v3 00/21] arm64: implement support for KASLR
From
On Mon, Jan 11, 2016 at 5:18 AM, Ard Biesheuvel
<ard.biesheuvel@linaro.org> wrote:
> This series implements KASLR for arm64, by building the kernel as a PIE
> executable that can relocate itself at runtime, and moving it to a random
> offset in the vmalloc area. v2 and up also implement physical randomization,
> i.e., it allows the kernel to deal with being loaded at any physical offset
> (modulo the required alignment), and invokes the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL from the
> UEFI stub to obtain random bits and perform the actual randomization of the
> physical load address.

I will continue cheering! :)

> Changes since v2:
> - Incorporated feedback from Marc Zyngier into the KVM patch (#5)
> - Dropped the pgdir section and the patch that memblock_reserve()'s the kernel
> sections at a smaller granularity. This is no longer necessary with the pgdir
> section gone. This also fixes an issue spotted by James Morse where the fixmap
> page tables are not zeroed correctly; these have been moved back to the .bss
> section.
> - Got rid of all ifdef'ery regarding the number of translation levels in the
> changed .c files, by introducing new definitions in pgtable.h (#3, #6)
> - Fixed KAsan support, which was broken by all earlier versions.
> - Moved module region along with the virtually randomized kernel, so that module
> addresses become unpredictable as well, and we only have to rely on veneers in
> the PLTs when the module region is exhausted (which is somewhat more likely
> since the module region is now shared with other uses of the vmalloc area)

Just to make sure I understand: this means that the offset between
kernel and modules remains static? It may still be useful to bump
modules as well, just so that leaking a module address doesn't
compromise the base kernel image address too. Don't block the series
for this, though. It's a minor nit. :)

-Kees

> - Added support for the 'nokaslr' command line option. This affects the
> randomization performed by the stub, and results in a warning if passed while
> the bootloader also presented a random seed for virtual KASLR in register x1.
> - The .text/.rodata sections of the kernel are no longer aliased in the linear
> region with a writable mapping.
> - Added a separate image header flag for kernel images that may be loaded at any
> 2 MB aligned offset (+ TEXT_OFFSET)
> - The KASLR displacement is now corrected if it results in the kernel image
> intersecting a PUD/PMD boundary (4k and 16k/64k granule kernels, respectively)
> - Split out UEFI stub random routines into separate patches.
> - Implemented a weight based EFI random allocation routine so that each suitable
> offset in available memory is equally likely to be selected (as suggested by
> Kees Cook)
> - Reused CONFIG_RELOCATABLE and CONFIG_RANDOMIZE_BASE instead of introducing
> new Kconfig symbols to describe the same functionality.
> - Reimplemented mem= logic so memory is clipped from the top first.
>
> Changes since v1/RFC:
> - This series now implements fully independent virtual and physical address
> randomization at load time. I have recycled some patches from this series:
> http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.ports.arm.kernel/455151, and updated the
> final UEFI stub patch to randomize the physical address as well.
> - Added a patch to deal with the way KVM on arm64 makes assumptions about the
> relation between kernel symbols and the linear mapping (on which the HYP
> mapping is based), as these assumptions cease to be valid once we move the
> kernel Image out of the linear mapping.
> - Updated the module PLT patch so it works on BE kernels as well.
> - Moved the constant Image header values to head.S, and updated the linker
> script to provide the kernel size using R_AARCH64_ABS32 relocation rather
> than a R_AARCH64_ABS64 relocation, since those are always resolved at build
> time. This allows me to get rid of the post-build perl script to swab header
> values on BE kernels.
> - Minor style tweaks.
>
> Notes:
> - These patches apply on top of Mark Rutland's pagetable rework series:
> http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.linux.ports.arm.kernel/462438
> - The arm64 Image is uncompressed by default, and the Elf64_Rela format uses
> 24 bytes per relocation entry. This results in considerable bloat (i.e., a
> couple of MBs worth of relocation data in an .init section). However, no
> build time postprocessing is required, we rely fully on the toolchain to
> produce the image
> - We have to rely on the bootloader to supply some randomness in register x1
> upon kernel entry. Since we have no decompressor, it is simply not feasible
> to collect randomness in the head.S code path before mapping the kernel and
> enabling the MMU.
> - The EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL that is invoked in patch #13 to supply randomness on
> UEFI systems is not universally available. A QEMU/KVM firmware image that
> implements a pseudo-random version is available here:
> http://people.linaro.org/~ard.biesheuvel/QEMU_EFI.fd.aarch64-rng.bz2
> (requires access to PMCCNTR_EL0 and support for AES instructions)
> See below for instructions how to run the pseudo-random version on real
> hardware.
> - Only mildly tested. Help appreciated.
>
> Code can be found here:
> git://git.linaro.org/people/ard.biesheuvel/linux-arm.git arm64-kaslr-v3
> https://git.linaro.org/people/ard.biesheuvel/linux-arm.git/shortlog/refs/heads/arm64-kaslr-v3
>
> Patch #1 updates the OF code to allow the minimum memblock physical address to
> be overridden by the arch.
>
> Patch #2 introduces KIMAGE_VADDR as the base of the kernel virtual region.
>
> Patch #3 introduces dummy pud_index() and pmd_index() macros that are intended
> to be optimized away if the configured number of translation levels does not
> actually use them.
>
> Patch #4 rewrites early_fixmap_init() so it does not rely on the linear mapping
> (i.e., the use of phys_to_virt() is avoided)
>
> Patch #5 updates KVM on arm64 so it can deal with kernel symbols whose addresses
> are not covered by the linear mapping.
>
> Patch #6 introduces pte_offset_kimg(), pmd_offset_kimg() and pud_offset_kimg()
> that allow statically allocated page tables (i.e., by fixmap and kasan) to be
> traversed before the linear mapping is installed.
>
> Patch #7 moves the kernel virtual mapping to the vmalloc area, along with the
> module region which is kept right below it, as before.
>
> Patch #8 adds support for PLTs in modules so that relative branches can be
> resolved via a PLT if the target is out of range. This is required for KASLR,
> since modules may be loaded far away from the core kernel.
>
> Patch #9 and #10 move arm64 to the a new generic relative version of the extable
> implementation so that it no longer contains absolute addresses that require
> fixing up at relocation time, but uses relative offsets instead.
>
> Patch #11 reverts some changes to the Image header population code so we no
> longer depend on the linker to populate the header fields. This is necessary
> since the R_AARCH64_ABS64 relocations that are emitted for these fields are not
> resolved at build time for PIE executables.
>
> Patch #12 updates the code in head.S that needs to execute before relocation to
> avoid the use of values that are subject to dynamic relocation. These values
> will not be populated in PIE executables.
>
> Patch #13 allows the kernel Image to be loaded anywhere in physical memory, by
> decoupling PHYS_OFFSET from the base of the kernel image.
>
> Patch #14 redefines SWAPPER_TABLE_SHIFT in a way that allows it to be used from
> assembler code regardless of the number of configured translation levels.
>
> Patch #15 (from Mark Rutland) moves the ELF relocation type #defines to a
> separate file so we can use it from head.S later
>
> Patch #16 updates scripts/sortextable.c so it accepts ET_DYN (relocatable)
> executables as well as ET_EXEC (static) executables.
>
> Patch #17 implements the core KASLR, by taking randomness supplied in register
> x1 and using it to move the kernel inside the vmalloc area.
>
> Patch #18 implements efi_get_random_bytes() based on the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL
>
> Patch #19 implements efi_random_alloc()
>
> Patch #20 moves the allocation for the converted command line (UTF-16 to ASCII)
> away from the base of memory. This is necessary since for parsing
>
> Patch #21 implements the actual KASLR, by randomizing the kernel physical
> address, and passing entropy in x1 so that the kernel proper can relocate itself
> virtually.
>
> Ard Biesheuvel (20):
> of/fdt: make memblock minimum physical address arch configurable
> arm64: introduce KIMAGE_VADDR as the virtual base of the kernel region
> arm64: pgtable: add dummy pud_index() and pmd_index() definitions
> arm64: decouple early fixmap init from linear mapping
> arm64: kvm: deal with kernel symbols outside of linear mapping
> arm64: pgtable: implement static [pte|pmd|pud]_offset variants
> arm64: move kernel image to base of vmalloc area
> arm64: add support for module PLTs
> extable: add support for relative extables to search and sort routines
> arm64: switch to relative exception tables
> arm64: avoid R_AARCH64_ABS64 relocations for Image header fields
> arm64: avoid dynamic relocations in early boot code
> arm64: allow kernel Image to be loaded anywhere in physical memory
> arm64: redefine SWAPPER_TABLE_SHIFT for use in asm code
> scripts/sortextable: add support for ET_DYN binaries
> arm64: add support for a relocatable kernel and KASLR
> efi: stub: implement efi_get_random_bytes() based on EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL
> efi: stub: add implementation of efi_random_alloc()
> efi: stub: use high allocation for converted command line
> arm64: efi: invoke EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL to supply KASLR randomness
>
> Mark Rutland (1):
> arm64: split elf relocs into a separate header.
>
> Documentation/arm64/booting.txt | 34 ++++-
> arch/arm/include/asm/kvm_asm.h | 2 +
> arch/arm/include/asm/kvm_mmu.h | 2 +
> arch/arm/kvm/arm.c | 5 +-
> arch/arm/kvm/mmu.c | 8 +-
> arch/arm64/Kconfig | 40 +++++
> arch/arm64/Makefile | 10 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/assembler.h | 30 +++-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/boot.h | 6 +
> arch/arm64/include/asm/elf.h | 54 +------
> arch/arm64/include/asm/elf_relocs.h | 75 ++++++++++
> arch/arm64/include/asm/futex.h | 12 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/kasan.h | 20 +--
> arch/arm64/include/asm/kernel-pgtable.h | 20 ++-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_asm.h | 19 ++-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_host.h | 8 +-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/kvm_mmu.h | 2 +
> arch/arm64/include/asm/memory.h | 38 +++--
> arch/arm64/include/asm/module.h | 11 ++
> arch/arm64/include/asm/pgtable.h | 22 ++-
> arch/arm64/include/asm/uaccess.h | 30 ++--
> arch/arm64/include/asm/virt.h | 4 -
> arch/arm64/include/asm/word-at-a-time.h | 7 +-
> arch/arm64/kernel/Makefile | 1 +
> arch/arm64/kernel/armv8_deprecated.c | 7 +-
> arch/arm64/kernel/efi-entry.S | 9 +-
> arch/arm64/kernel/head.S | 155 +++++++++++++++++---
> arch/arm64/kernel/image.h | 37 ++---
> arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c | 137 +++++++++++++++++
> arch/arm64/kernel/module.c | 15 +-
> arch/arm64/kernel/module.lds | 4 +
> arch/arm64/kernel/setup.c | 44 +++++-
> arch/arm64/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S | 13 +-
> arch/arm64/kvm/debug.c | 1 +
> arch/arm64/kvm/hyp.S | 6 +-
> arch/arm64/mm/dump.c | 12 +-
> arch/arm64/mm/extable.c | 2 +-
> arch/arm64/mm/init.c | 91 ++++++++++--
> arch/arm64/mm/kasan_init.c | 21 ++-
> arch/arm64/mm/mmu.c | 95 +++++++-----
> arch/x86/include/asm/efi.h | 2 +
> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/Makefile | 2 +-
> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/arm-stub.c | 17 ++-
> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/arm64-stub.c | 67 +++++++--
> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/efi-stub-helper.c | 24 ++-
> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/efistub.h | 9 ++
> drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/random.c | 120 +++++++++++++++
> drivers/of/fdt.c | 5 +-
> include/linux/efi.h | 5 +-
> lib/extable.c | 50 +++++--
> scripts/sortextable.c | 10 +-
> 51 files changed, 1111 insertions(+), 309 deletions(-)
> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/include/asm/elf_relocs.h
> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/module-plts.c
> create mode 100644 arch/arm64/kernel/module.lds
> create mode 100644 drivers/firmware/efi/libstub/random.c
>
> EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL on real hardware
> =================================
>
> To test whether your UEFI implements the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL, download the
> following executable and run it from the UEFI Shell:
> http://people.linaro.org/~ard.biesheuvel/RngTest.efi
>
> FS0:\> rngtest
> UEFI RNG Protocol Testing :
> ----------------------------
> -- Locate UEFI RNG Protocol : [Fail - Status = Not Found]
>
> If your UEFI does not implement the EFI_RNG_PROTOCOL, you can download and
> install the pseudo-random version that uses the generic timer and PMCCNTR_EL0
> values and permutes them using a couple of rounds of AES.
> http://people.linaro.org/~ard.biesheuvel/RngDxe.efi
>
> NOTE: not for production!! This is a quick and dirty hack to test the KASLR
> code, and is not suitable for anything else.
>
> FS0:\> rngdxe
> FS0:\> rngtest
> UEFI RNG Protocol Testing :
> ----------------------------
> -- Locate UEFI RNG Protocol : [Pass]
> -- Call RNG->GetInfo() interface :
> >> Supported RNG Algorithm (Count = 2) :
> 0) 44F0DE6E-4D8C-4045-A8C7-4DD168856B9E
> 1) E43176D7-B6E8-4827-B784-7FFDC4B68561
> -- Call RNG->GetRNG() interface :
> >> RNG with default algorithm : [Pass]
> >> RNG with SP800-90-HMAC-256 : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
> >> RNG with SP800-90-Hash-256 : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
> >> RNG with SP800-90-CTR-256 : [Pass]
> >> RNG with X9.31-3DES : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
> >> RNG with X9.31-AES : [Fail - Status = Unsupported]
> >> RNG with RAW Entropy : [Pass]
> -- Random Number Generation Test with default RNG Algorithm (20 Rounds):
> 01) - 27
> 02) - 61E8
> 03) - 496FD8
> 04) - DDD793BF
> 05) - B6C37C8E23
> 06) - 4D183C604A96
> 07) - 9363311DB61298
> 08) - 5715A7294F4E436E
> 09) - F0D4D7BAA0DD52318E
> 10) - C88C6EBCF4C0474D87C3
> 11) - B5594602B482A643932172
> 12) - CA7573F704B2089B726B9CF1
> 13) - A93E9451CB533DCFBA87B97C33
> 14) - 45AA7B83DB6044F7BBAB031F0D24
> 15) - 3DD7A4D61F34ADCB400B5976730DCF
> 16) - 4DD168D21FAB8F59708330D6A9BEB021
> 17) - 4BBB225E61C465F174254159467E65939F
> 18) - 030A156C9616337A20070941E702827DA8E1
> 19) - AB0FC11C9A4E225011382A9D164D9D55CA2B64
> 20) - 72B9B4735DC445E5DA6AF88DE965B7E87CB9A23C



--
Kees Cook
Chrome OS & Brillo Security

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