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SubjectRe: [PATCH 12/12] mm, page_alloc: Only enforce watermarks for order-0 allocations
On Tue, Sep 08, 2015 at 05:26:13PM +0900, Joonsoo Kim wrote:
> 2015-08-24 21:30 GMT+09:00 Mel Gorman <mgorman@techsingularity.net>:
> > The primary purpose of watermarks is to ensure that reclaim can always
> > make forward progress in PF_MEMALLOC context (kswapd and direct reclaim).
> > These assume that order-0 allocations are all that is necessary for
> > forward progress.
> >
> > High-order watermarks serve a different purpose. Kswapd had no high-order
> > awareness before they were introduced (https://lkml.org/lkml/2004/9/5/9).
> > This was particularly important when there were high-order atomic requests.
> > The watermarks both gave kswapd awareness and made a reserve for those
> > atomic requests.
> >
> > There are two important side-effects of this. The most important is that
> > a non-atomic high-order request can fail even though free pages are available
> > and the order-0 watermarks are ok. The second is that high-order watermark
> > checks are expensive as the free list counts up to the requested order must
> > be examined.
> >
> > With the introduction of MIGRATE_HIGHATOMIC it is no longer necessary to
> > have high-order watermarks. Kswapd and compaction still need high-order
> > awareness which is handled by checking that at least one suitable high-order
> > page is free.
>
> I still don't think that this one suitable high-order page is enough.
> If fragmentation happens, there would be no order-2 freepage. If kswapd
> prepares only 1 order-2 freepage, one of two successive process forks
> (AFAIK, fork in x86 and ARM require order 2 page) must go to direct reclaim
> to make order-2 freepage. Kswapd cannot make order-2 freepage in that
> short time. It causes latency to many high-order freepage requestor
> in fragmented situation.
>

So what do you suggest instead? A fixed number, some other heuristic?
You have pushed several times now for the series to focus on the latency
of standard high-order allocations but again I will say that it is outside
the scope of this series. If you want to take steps to reduce the latency
of ordinary high-order allocation requests that can sleep then it should
be a separate series.

> > With the patch applied, there was little difference in the allocation
> > failure rates as the atomic reserves are small relative to the number of
> > allocation attempts. The expected impact is that there will never be an
> > allocation failure report that shows suitable pages on the free lists.
>
> Due to highatomic pageblock and freepage count mismatch per allocation
> flag, allocation failure with suitable pages can still be possible.
>

An allocation failure of this type would be a !atomic allocation that
cannot access the reserve. If such allocations requests can access the
reserve then it defeats the whole point of the pageblock type.

> > + * Return true if free base pages are above 'mark'. For high-order checks it
> > + * will return true of the order-0 watermark is reached and there is at least
> > + * one free page of a suitable size. Checking now avoids taking the zone lock
> > + * to check in the allocation paths if no pages are free.
> > */
> > static bool __zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, unsigned int order,
> > unsigned long mark, int classzone_idx, int alloc_flags,
> > @@ -2289,7 +2291,7 @@ static bool __zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, unsigned int order,
> > {
> > long min = mark;
> > int o;
> > - long free_cma = 0;
> > + const bool atomic = (alloc_flags & ALLOC_HARDER);
> >
> > /* free_pages may go negative - that's OK */
> > free_pages -= (1 << order) - 1;
> > @@ -2301,7 +2303,7 @@ static bool __zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, unsigned int order,
> > * If the caller is not atomic then discount the reserves. This will
> > * over-estimate how the atomic reserve but it avoids a search
> > */
> > - if (likely(!(alloc_flags & ALLOC_HARDER)))
> > + if (likely(!atomic))
> > free_pages -= z->nr_reserved_highatomic;
> > else
> > min -= min / 4;
> > @@ -2309,22 +2311,30 @@ static bool __zone_watermark_ok(struct zone *z, unsigned int order,
> > #ifdef CONFIG_CMA
> > /* If allocation can't use CMA areas don't use free CMA pages */
> > if (!(alloc_flags & ALLOC_CMA))
> > - free_cma = zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES);
> > + free_pages -= zone_page_state(z, NR_FREE_CMA_PAGES);
> > #endif
> >
> > - if (free_pages - free_cma <= min + z->lowmem_reserve[classzone_idx])
> > + if (free_pages <= min + z->lowmem_reserve[classzone_idx])
> > return false;
> > - for (o = 0; o < order; o++) {
> > - /* At the next order, this order's pages become unavailable */
> > - free_pages -= z->free_area[o].nr_free << o;
> >
> > - /* Require fewer higher order pages to be free */
> > - min >>= 1;
> > + /* order-0 watermarks are ok */
> > + if (!order)
> > + return true;
> > +
> > + /* Check at least one high-order page is free */
> > + for (o = order; o < MAX_ORDER; o++) {
> > + struct free_area *area = &z->free_area[o];
> > + int mt;
> > +
> > + if (atomic && area->nr_free)
> > + return true;
>
> How about checking area->nr_free first?
> In both atomic and !atomic case, nr_free == 0 means
> there is no appropriate pages.
>
> So,
> if (!area->nr_free)
> continue;
> if (atomic)
> return true;
> ...
>
>
> > - if (free_pages <= min)
> > - return false;
> > + for (mt = 0; mt < MIGRATE_PCPTYPES; mt++) {
> > + if (!list_empty(&area->free_list[mt]))
> > + return true;
> > + }
>
> I'm not sure this is really faster than previous.
> We need to check three lists on each order.
>
> Think about order-2 case. I guess order-2 is usually on movable
> pageblock rather than unmovable pageblock. In this case,
> we need to check three lists so cost is more.
>

Ok, the extra check makes sense. Thanks.

--
Mel Gorman
SUSE Labs


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