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SubjectRe: [PATCH 2/2] livepatch: fix patched module loading race
On Wed 2015-03-04 09:34:15, Josh Poimboeuf wrote:
> On Wed, Mar 04, 2015 at 02:17:52PM +0100, Petr Mladek wrote:
> > On Tue 2015-03-03 17:02:22, Josh Poimboeuf wrote:
> > > It's possible for klp_register_patch() to see a module before the COMING
> > > notifier is called, or after the GOING notifier is called.
> > >
> > > That can cause all kinds of ugly races. As Pter Mladek reported:
> > >
> > > "The problem is that we do not keep the klp_mutex lock all the time when
> > > the module is being added or removed.

> > > Second, if we are "lucky" and enable the patch for the coming module when the
> > > ftrace is ready but before the module notifier has been called. The notifier
> > > will try to enable the patch as well. It will detect that it is already patched,
> > > return error, and the module will get rejected just because bad
> > > timing. The more serious problem is that it will not call the notifier for
> > > going module, so that the mess will stay there and we wont be able to load
> > > the module later.
> >
> > Ah, the race is there but the effect is not that serious in the
> > end. It seems that errors from module notifiers are ignored. In fact,
> > we do not propagate the error from klp_module_notify_coming(). It means
> > that WARN() from klp_enable_object() will be printed but the module
> > will be loaded and patched.
> >
> > I am sorry, I was confused by kGraft where kgr_module_init() was
> > called directly from module_load(). The errors were propagated. It
> > means that kGraft rejects module when the patch cannot be applied.
>
> True, but we should still eliminate the race. Initializing the object
> twice could cause some sneaky bugs, if not now then in the future.

sure

> > Note that the current solution is perfectly fine for the simple
> > consistency model.
> >
> >
> > > Third, similar problems are there for going module. If a patch is enabled after
> > > the notifier finishes but before the module is removed from the list of modules,
> > > the new patch will be applied to the module. The module might disappear at
> > > anytime when the patch enabling is in progress, so there might be an access out
> > > of memory. Or the whole patch might be applied and some mess will be left,
> > > so it will not be possible to load/patch the module again."
> >
> > This is true.
> >
> >
> > > Fix these races by letting the first one who sees the module do the
> > > needed work.
> > >
> > > Reported-by: Petr Mladek <pmladek@suse.cz>
> > > Signed-off-by: Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
> > > ---
> > > kernel/livepatch/core.c | 53 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----
> > > 1 file changed, 49 insertions(+), 4 deletions(-)
> > >
> > > diff --git a/kernel/livepatch/core.c b/kernel/livepatch/core.c
> > > index a74e4e8..19a758c 100644
> > > --- a/kernel/livepatch/core.c
> > > +++ b/kernel/livepatch/core.c
> > > @@ -89,16 +89,42 @@ static bool klp_is_object_loaded(struct klp_object *obj)
> > > /* sets obj->mod if object is not vmlinux and module is found */
> > > static void klp_find_object_module(struct klp_object *obj)
> > > {
> > > + struct module *mod;
> > > +
> > > if (!klp_is_module(obj))
> > > return;
> > >
> > > mutex_lock(&module_mutex);
> > > +
> > > /*
> > > * We don't need to take a reference on the module here because we have
> > > * the klp_mutex, which is also taken by the module notifier. This
> > > * prevents any module from unloading until we release the klp_mutex.
> > > */
> > > - obj->mod = find_module(obj->name);
> > > + mod = find_module(obj->name);
> > > +
> > > + /*
> > > + * Be careful here to prevent races with the notifier:
> > > + *
> > > + * - MODULE_STATE_COMING: This may be before or after the notifier gets
> > > + * called. If after, the notifier didn't see the object anyway
> > > + * because it hadn't been added to the patch list yet. Either way,
> > > + * ftrace is already initialized, so it's safe to just go ahead and
> > > + * initialize the object here.
> >
> > Well, we need to be careful. This will handle only the newly
> > registered patch. If there are other patches against the module
> > on the stack, it might produce wrong order at func_stack, see below.
>
> Sorry, but I don't follow. Can you give an example?

See below.

> > > + *
> > > + * - MODULE_STATE_GOING: Similar to MODULE_STATE_COMING, this may be
> > > + * before or after the notifier gets called. If after, the notifer
> > > + * didn't see the object anyway. Either way it's safe to just
> > > + * pretend that it's already gone and leave obj->mod at NULL.
> >
> > This is true for the current simple consistency model.
> >
> > Note that there will be a small race window if we allow dependency
> > between patched functions and introduce more a complex consistency model
> > with lazy patching. The problem is the following sequence:
> >
> >
> > CPU0 CPU1
> >
> > delete_module() #SYSCALL
> >
> > try_stop_module()
> > mod->state = MODULE_STATE_GOING;
> >
> > mutex_unlock(&module_mutex);
> >
> > klp_register_patch()
> > klp_enable_patch()
> >
> > #save place to switch universe
> >
> > b() # from module that is going
> > a() # from core (patched)
> >
> >
> > mod->exit();
> >
> >
> > Note that the function b() can be called until we call mod->exit().
> >
> > If we do not apply patch against b() because it is in
> > MODULE_STATE_GOING. It will call patched a() with modified semantic
> > and things might get wrong.
> >
> >
> > Well, the above described race is rather theoretical. It will happen
> > only when a patched module is being removed and a module with a patch
> > is added at the same time. Also it means that some other CPU will
> > manage to register, enable the patch, switch the universe, and
> > call function from the patched module during the small race window.
> >
> > I am not sure if we need to handle such a type of race if the solution
> > adds too big complexity.
>
> But b() can't be called after the module is in MODULE_STATE_GOING,
> right? try_stop_module() makes sure it's not being used before changing
> its state.

As Jikos mentioned. b() could get called from mod->exit();

IMHO, try_stop_module() is just a misleading name. If you look
inside, it just decrements the refcount. This could not stop anyone
from using the code.

AFAIK, mod->exit() is responsible for canceling all pending
operations, unregistering the module from any callbacks, queues,
lists. If mod->exit() is not done correctly, the module functions could
get called even after it finishes. But then it is a bug in the module.
This is why module removal is a dangerous operation and any
administrator should think twice before doing it.


> > > + * MODULE_STATE_LIVE: The common case. The module already finished
> > > + * loading. Just like with MODULE_STATE_COMING, we know the notifier
> > > + * didn't see the object, so we init it here.
> > > + */
> > > + if (mod && (mod->state == MODULE_STATE_COMING ||
> > > + mod->state == MODULE_STATE_LIVE))
> > > + obj->mod = mod;
> > > +
> > > mutex_unlock(&module_mutex);
> > > }
> > >
> > > @@ -695,8 +721,6 @@ static void klp_free_object_loaded(struct klp_object *obj)
> > > {
> > > struct klp_func *func;
> > >
> > > - obj->mod = NULL;
> > > -
> > >
> > > for (func = obj->funcs; func->old_name; func++)
> > > func->old_addr = 0;
> > > }
> > > @@ -765,6 +789,7 @@ static int klp_init_object(struct klp_patch *patch, struct klp_object *obj)
> > > return -EINVAL;
> > >
> > > obj->state = KLP_DISABLED;
> > > + obj->mod = NULL;
> > >
> > > klp_find_object_module(obj);
> > >
> > > @@ -965,10 +990,30 @@ static int klp_module_notify(struct notifier_block *nb, unsigned long action,
> > > continue;
> > >
> > > if (action == MODULE_STATE_COMING) {
> > > +
> > > + /*
> > > + * Check for a small window where the register
> > > + * path already initialized the object.
> > > + */
> > s/path/patch/
>
> Not a typo, I was referring to the register code path. Is there a
> clearer way to say that?

I see.

> >
> >
> >
> > > + if (obj->mod)
> > > + continue;
> >
> > This might break stacking. The recently registered patch might become
> > the last on the stack and thus unused.
>
> Example please :-)

For example, let's have three patches (P1, P2, P3) for the functions a() and b()
where a() is from vmcore and b() is from a module M. Something like:

a() b()
P1 a1() b1()
P2 a2() b2()
P3 a3() b3(3)

If you load the module M after all patches are registered and enabled.
The ftrace ops for function a() and b() has listed the functions in this
order

ops_a->func_stack -> list(a3,a2,a1)
ops_b->func_stack -> list(b3,b2,b1)

, so the pointer to b3() is the first and will be used.

Then you might have the following scenario. Let's start with state
when patches P1 and P2 are registered and enabled but the module M
is not loaded. Then ftrace ops for b() does not exist. Then we
get into the following race:


CPU0 CPU1

load_module(M)

complete_formation()

mod->state = MODULE_STATE_COMING;
mutex_unlock(&module_mutex);

klp_register_patch(P3);
klp_enable_patch(P3);

# STATE 1


klp_module_notify(M)
klp_module_notify_coming(P1);
klp_module_notify_coming(P2);
klp_module_notify_coming(P3);

# STATE 2


The ftrace ops for a() and b() then looks:

STATE1:

ops_a->func_stack -> list(a3,a2,a1);
ops_b->func_stack -> list(b3);

STATE2:
ops_a->func_stack -> list(a3,a2,a1);
ops_b->func_stack -> list(b2,b1,b3);

therefore, b2() is used for the module but a3() is used for vmcore
because they were the last added.


My plan is to fix this problem by calling klp_module_init() directly
in load_module() just after ftrace_module_init(). It will solve this
problem because it will be called in MODULE_STATE_UNFORMED.

It will have another big advantage. It will allow to pass the error
code and refuse loading modules that could not get patched. This will
be needed for the more complex patches anyway. We have to prevent
running module code that is inconsistent with the patched system.

I am still in doubts how to best solve the problem for going modules.
Your suggested solution is fine for now. But we will need a better fix
after adding the more complex consistency model.

Best Regards,
Petr

> > > obj->mod = mod;
> > > klp_module_notify_coming(patch, obj);
> > > - } else /* MODULE_STATE_GOING */
> > > + } else {
> > > + /* MODULE_STATE_GOING */
> > > +
> > > + /*
> > > + * Check for a small window where the register
> > > + * path already saw the GOING state and thus
> > > + * didn't set obj->mod.
> >
> > Same typo here.
>
> Same not actually a typo ;-)
>
> > Also I would write that it did not initialize the object. It is not
> > only about setting obj->mod.
>
> Ok.
>
>
> --
> Josh


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