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Subject[PATCH v17 08/11] ARM: kprobes: enable OPTPROBES for ARM 32
Date
This patch introduce kprobeopt for ARM 32.

Limitations:
- Currently only kernel compiled with ARM ISA is supported.

- Offset between probe point and optinsn slot must not larger than
32MiB. Masami Hiramatsu suggests replacing 2 words, it will make
things complex. Futher patch can make such optimization.

Kprobe opt on ARM is relatively simpler than kprobe opt on x86 because
ARM instruction is always 4 bytes aligned and 4 bytes long. This patch
replace probed instruction by a 'b', branch to trampoline code and then
calls optimized_callback(). optimized_callback() calls opt_pre_handler()
to execute kprobe handler. It also emulate/simulate replaced instruction.

When unregistering kprobe, the deferred manner of unoptimizer may leave
branch instruction before optimizer is called. Different from x86_64,
which only copy the probed insn after optprobe_template_end and
reexecute them, this patch call singlestep to emulate/simulate the insn
directly. Futher patch can optimize this behavior.

Signed-off-by: Wang Nan <wangnan0@huawei.com>
Acked-by: Masami Hiramatsu <masami.hiramatsu.pt@hitachi.com>
Cc: Jon Medhurst (Tixy) <tixy@linaro.org>
Cc: Russell King - ARM Linux <linux@arm.linux.org.uk>
Cc: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
---
arch/arm/Kconfig | 1 +
arch/arm/{kernel => include/asm}/insn.h | 0
arch/arm/include/asm/kprobes.h | 29 +++
arch/arm/kernel/Makefile | 2 +-
arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c | 3 +-
arch/arm/kernel/jump_label.c | 3 +-
arch/arm/probes/kprobes/Makefile | 1 +
arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c | 26 ++-
arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.h | 2 +
arch/arm/probes/kprobes/opt-arm.c | 317 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
10 files changed, 372 insertions(+), 12 deletions(-)
rename arch/arm/{kernel => include/asm}/insn.h (100%)
create mode 100644 arch/arm/probes/kprobes/opt-arm.c

diff --git a/arch/arm/Kconfig b/arch/arm/Kconfig
index 97d07ed..3d5dc2d 100644
--- a/arch/arm/Kconfig
+++ b/arch/arm/Kconfig
@@ -60,6 +60,7 @@ config ARM
select HAVE_MEMBLOCK
select HAVE_MOD_ARCH_SPECIFIC if ARM_UNWIND
select HAVE_OPROFILE if (HAVE_PERF_EVENTS)
+ select HAVE_OPTPROBES if !THUMB2_KERNEL
select HAVE_PERF_EVENTS
select HAVE_PERF_REGS
select HAVE_PERF_USER_STACK_DUMP
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/insn.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/insn.h
similarity index 100%
rename from arch/arm/kernel/insn.h
rename to arch/arm/include/asm/insn.h
diff --git a/arch/arm/include/asm/kprobes.h b/arch/arm/include/asm/kprobes.h
index 56f9ac6..50ff3bc 100644
--- a/arch/arm/include/asm/kprobes.h
+++ b/arch/arm/include/asm/kprobes.h
@@ -50,5 +50,34 @@ int kprobe_fault_handler(struct pt_regs *regs, unsigned int fsr);
int kprobe_exceptions_notify(struct notifier_block *self,
unsigned long val, void *data);

+/* optinsn template addresses */
+extern __visible kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_entry;
+extern __visible kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_val;
+extern __visible kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_call;
+extern __visible kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_end;
+extern __visible kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_sub_sp;
+extern __visible kprobe_opcode_t optprobe_template_add_sp;
+
+#define MAX_OPTIMIZED_LENGTH 4
+#define MAX_OPTINSN_SIZE \
+ ((unsigned long)&optprobe_template_end - \
+ (unsigned long)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE 4
+
+struct arch_optimized_insn {
+ /*
+ * copy of the original instructions.
+ * Different from x86, ARM kprobe_opcode_t is u32.
+ */
+#define MAX_COPIED_INSN DIV_ROUND_UP(RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE, sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t))
+ kprobe_opcode_t copied_insn[MAX_COPIED_INSN];
+ /* detour code buffer */
+ kprobe_opcode_t *insn;
+ /*
+ * We always copy one instruction on ARM,
+ * so size will always be 4, and unlike x86, there is no
+ * need for a size field.
+ */
+};

#endif /* _ARM_KPROBES_H */
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile b/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
index 9c51a43..902397d 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/Makefile
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_FUNCTION_GRAPH_TRACER) += ftrace.o insn.o
obj-$(CONFIG_JUMP_LABEL) += jump_label.o insn.o patch.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KEXEC) += machine_kexec.o relocate_kernel.o
# Main staffs in KPROBES are in arch/arm/probes/ .
-obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += patch.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += patch.o insn.o
obj-$(CONFIG_OABI_COMPAT) += sys_oabi-compat.o
obj-$(CONFIG_ARM_THUMBEE) += thumbee.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KGDB) += kgdb.o patch.o
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c b/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c
index b8c75e4..709ee1d 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/ftrace.c
@@ -20,8 +20,7 @@
#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
#include <asm/opcodes.h>
#include <asm/ftrace.h>
-
-#include "insn.h"
+#include <asm/insn.h>

#ifdef CONFIG_THUMB2_KERNEL
#define NOP 0xf85deb04 /* pop.w {lr} */
diff --git a/arch/arm/kernel/jump_label.c b/arch/arm/kernel/jump_label.c
index d8da075..e39cbf4 100644
--- a/arch/arm/kernel/jump_label.c
+++ b/arch/arm/kernel/jump_label.c
@@ -1,8 +1,7 @@
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/jump_label.h>
#include <asm/patch.h>
-
-#include "insn.h"
+#include <asm/insn.h>

#ifdef HAVE_JUMP_LABEL

diff --git a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/Makefile b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/Makefile
index bc8d504..76a36bf 100644
--- a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/Makefile
+++ b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/Makefile
@@ -7,5 +7,6 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += actions-thumb.o checkers-thumb.o
test-kprobes-objs += test-thumb.o
else
obj-$(CONFIG_KPROBES) += actions-arm.o checkers-arm.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_OPTPROBES) += opt-arm.o
test-kprobes-objs += test-arm.o
endif
diff --git a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c
index 3a58db4..a4ec240 100644
--- a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c
+++ b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.c
@@ -163,19 +163,31 @@ void __kprobes arch_arm_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
* memory. It is also needed to atomically set the two half-words of a 32-bit
* Thumb breakpoint.
*/
-int __kprobes __arch_disarm_kprobe(void *p)
-{
- struct kprobe *kp = p;
- void *addr = (void *)((uintptr_t)kp->addr & ~1);
-
- __patch_text(addr, kp->opcode);
+struct patch {
+ void *addr;
+ unsigned int insn;
+};

+static int __kprobes_remove_breakpoint(void *data)
+{
+ struct patch *p = data;
+ __patch_text(p->addr, p->insn);
return 0;
}

+void __kprobes kprobes_remove_breakpoint(void *addr, unsigned int insn)
+{
+ struct patch p = {
+ .addr = addr,
+ .insn = insn,
+ };
+ stop_machine(__kprobes_remove_breakpoint, &p, cpu_online_mask);
+}
+
void __kprobes arch_disarm_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
{
- stop_machine(__arch_disarm_kprobe, p, cpu_online_mask);
+ kprobes_remove_breakpoint((void *)((uintptr_t)p->addr & ~1),
+ p->opcode);
}

void __kprobes arch_remove_kprobe(struct kprobe *p)
diff --git a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.h b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.h
index f88c79f..b3036c5 100644
--- a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.h
+++ b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/core.h
@@ -30,6 +30,8 @@
#define KPROBE_THUMB16_BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION 0xde18
#define KPROBE_THUMB32_BREAKPOINT_INSTRUCTION 0xf7f0a018

+extern void kprobes_remove_breakpoint(void *addr, unsigned int insn);
+
enum probes_insn __kprobes
kprobe_decode_ldmstm(kprobe_opcode_t insn, struct arch_probes_insn *asi,
const struct decode_header *h);
diff --git a/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/opt-arm.c b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/opt-arm.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6a60df3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/arch/arm/probes/kprobes/opt-arm.c
@@ -0,0 +1,317 @@
+/*
+ * Kernel Probes Jump Optimization (Optprobes)
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ * GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) IBM Corporation, 2002, 2004
+ * Copyright (C) Hitachi Ltd., 2012
+ * Copyright (C) Huawei Inc., 2014
+ */
+
+#include <linux/kprobes.h>
+#include <linux/jump_label.h>
+#include <asm/kprobes.h>
+#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
+/* for arm_gen_branch */
+#include <asm/insn.h>
+/* for patch_text */
+#include <asm/patch.h>
+
+#include "core.h"
+
+/*
+ * NOTE: the first sub and add instruction will be modified according
+ * to the stack cost of the instruction.
+ */
+asm (
+ ".global optprobe_template_entry\n"
+ "optprobe_template_entry:\n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_sub_sp\n"
+ "optprobe_template_sub_sp:"
+ " sub sp, sp, #0xff\n"
+ " stmia sp, {r0 - r14} \n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_add_sp\n"
+ "optprobe_template_add_sp:"
+ " add r3, sp, #0xff\n"
+ " str r3, [sp, #52]\n"
+ " mrs r4, cpsr\n"
+ " str r4, [sp, #64]\n"
+ " mov r1, sp\n"
+ " ldr r0, 1f\n"
+ " ldr r2, 2f\n"
+ /*
+ * AEABI requires an 8-bytes alignment stack. If
+ * SP % 8 != 0 (SP % 4 == 0 should be ensured),
+ * alloc more bytes here.
+ */
+ " and r4, sp, #4\n"
+ " sub sp, sp, r4\n"
+ " blx r2\n"
+ " add sp, sp, r4\n"
+ " ldr r1, [sp, #64]\n"
+ " tst r1, #"__stringify(PSR_T_BIT)"\n"
+ " ldrne r2, [sp, #60]\n"
+ " orrne r2, #1\n"
+ " strne r2, [sp, #60] @ set bit0 of PC for thumb\n"
+ " msr cpsr_cxsf, r1\n"
+ " ldmia sp, {r0 - r15}\n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_val\n"
+ "optprobe_template_val:\n"
+ "1: .long 0\n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_call\n"
+ "optprobe_template_call:\n"
+ "2: .long 0\n"
+ ".global optprobe_template_end\n"
+ "optprobe_template_end:\n");
+
+#define TMPL_VAL_IDX \
+ ((unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_val - (unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define TMPL_CALL_IDX \
+ ((unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_call - (unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define TMPL_END_IDX \
+ ((unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_end - (unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define TMPL_ADD_SP \
+ ((unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_add_sp - (unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_entry)
+#define TMPL_SUB_SP \
+ ((unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_sub_sp - (unsigned long *)&optprobe_template_entry)
+
+/*
+ * ARM can always optimize an instruction when using ARM ISA, except
+ * instructions like 'str r0, [sp, r1]' which store to stack and unable
+ * to determine stack space consumption statically.
+ */
+int arch_prepared_optinsn(struct arch_optimized_insn *optinsn)
+{
+ return optinsn->insn != NULL;
+}
+
+/*
+ * In ARM ISA, kprobe opt always replace one instruction (4 bytes
+ * aligned and 4 bytes long). It is impossible to encounter another
+ * kprobe in the address range. So always return 0.
+ */
+int arch_check_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* Caller must ensure addr & 3 == 0 */
+static int can_optimize(struct kprobe *kp)
+{
+ if (kp->ainsn.stack_space < 0)
+ return 0;
+ /*
+ * 255 is the biggest imm can be used in 'sub r0, r0, #<imm>'.
+ * Number larger than 255 needs special encoding.
+ */
+ if (kp->ainsn.stack_space > 255 - sizeof(struct pt_regs))
+ return 0;
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/* Free optimized instruction slot */
+static void
+__arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op, int dirty)
+{
+ if (op->optinsn.insn) {
+ free_optinsn_slot(op->optinsn.insn, dirty);
+ op->optinsn.insn = NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+extern void kprobe_handler(struct pt_regs *regs);
+
+static void
+optimized_callback(struct optimized_kprobe *op, struct pt_regs *regs)
+{
+ unsigned long flags;
+ struct kprobe *p = &op->kp;
+ struct kprobe_ctlblk *kcb = get_kprobe_ctlblk();
+
+ /* Save skipped registers */
+ regs->ARM_pc = (unsigned long)op->kp.addr;
+ regs->ARM_ORIG_r0 = ~0UL;
+
+ local_irq_save(flags);
+
+ if (kprobe_running()) {
+ kprobes_inc_nmissed_count(&op->kp);
+ } else {
+ __this_cpu_write(current_kprobe, &op->kp);
+ kcb->kprobe_status = KPROBE_HIT_ACTIVE;
+ opt_pre_handler(&op->kp, regs);
+ __this_cpu_write(current_kprobe, NULL);
+ }
+
+ /* In each case, we must singlestep the replaced instruction. */
+ op->kp.ainsn.insn_singlestep(p->opcode, &p->ainsn, regs);
+
+ local_irq_restore(flags);
+}
+
+int arch_prepare_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op, struct kprobe *orig)
+{
+ kprobe_opcode_t *code;
+ unsigned long rel_chk;
+ unsigned long val;
+ unsigned long stack_protect = sizeof(struct pt_regs);
+
+ if (!can_optimize(orig))
+ return -EILSEQ;
+
+ code = get_optinsn_slot();
+ if (!code)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ /*
+ * Verify if the address gap is in 32MiB range, because this uses
+ * a relative jump.
+ *
+ * kprobe opt use a 'b' instruction to branch to optinsn.insn.
+ * According to ARM manual, branch instruction is:
+ *
+ * 31 28 27 24 23 0
+ * +------+---+---+---+---+----------------+
+ * | cond | 1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | imm24 |
+ * +------+---+---+---+---+----------------+
+ *
+ * imm24 is a signed 24 bits integer. The real branch offset is computed
+ * by: imm32 = SignExtend(imm24:'00', 32);
+ *
+ * So the maximum forward branch should be:
+ * (0x007fffff << 2) = 0x01fffffc = 0x1fffffc
+ * The maximum backword branch should be:
+ * (0xff800000 << 2) = 0xfe000000 = -0x2000000
+ *
+ * We can simply check (rel & 0xfe000003):
+ * if rel is positive, (rel & 0xfe000000) shoule be 0
+ * if rel is negitive, (rel & 0xfe000000) should be 0xfe000000
+ * the last '3' is used for alignment checking.
+ */
+ rel_chk = (unsigned long)((long)code -
+ (long)orig->addr + 8) & 0xfe000003;
+
+ if ((rel_chk != 0) && (rel_chk != 0xfe000000)) {
+ /*
+ * Different from x86, we free code buf directly instead of
+ * calling __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe() because
+ * we have not fill any field in op.
+ */
+ free_optinsn_slot(code, 0);
+ return -ERANGE;
+ }
+
+ /* Copy arch-dep-instance from template. */
+ memcpy(code, &optprobe_template_entry,
+ TMPL_END_IDX * sizeof(kprobe_opcode_t));
+
+ /* Adjust buffer according to instruction. */
+ BUG_ON(orig->ainsn.stack_space < 0);
+
+ stack_protect += orig->ainsn.stack_space;
+
+ /* Should have been filtered by can_optimize(). */
+ BUG_ON(stack_protect > 255);
+
+ /* Create a 'sub sp, sp, #<stack_protect>' */
+ code[TMPL_SUB_SP] = __opcode_to_mem_arm(0xe24dd000 | stack_protect);
+ /* Create a 'add r3, sp, #<stack_protect>' */
+ code[TMPL_ADD_SP] = __opcode_to_mem_arm(0xe28d3000 | stack_protect);
+
+ /* Set probe information */
+ val = (unsigned long)op;
+ code[TMPL_VAL_IDX] = val;
+
+ /* Set probe function call */
+ val = (unsigned long)optimized_callback;
+ code[TMPL_CALL_IDX] = val;
+
+ flush_icache_range((unsigned long)code,
+ (unsigned long)(&code[TMPL_END_IDX]));
+
+ /* Set op->optinsn.insn means prepared. */
+ op->optinsn.insn = code;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+void __kprobes arch_optimize_kprobes(struct list_head *oplist)
+{
+ struct optimized_kprobe *op, *tmp;
+
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(op, tmp, oplist, list) {
+ unsigned long insn;
+ WARN_ON(kprobe_disabled(&op->kp));
+
+ /*
+ * Backup instructions which will be replaced
+ * by jump address
+ */
+ memcpy(op->optinsn.copied_insn, op->kp.addr,
+ RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE);
+
+ insn = arm_gen_branch((unsigned long)op->kp.addr,
+ (unsigned long)op->optinsn.insn);
+ BUG_ON(insn == 0);
+
+ /*
+ * Make it a conditional branch if replaced insn
+ * is consitional
+ */
+ insn = (__mem_to_opcode_arm(
+ op->optinsn.copied_insn[0]) & 0xf0000000) |
+ (insn & 0x0fffffff);
+
+ /*
+ * Similar to __arch_disarm_kprobe, operations which
+ * removing breakpoints must be wrapped by stop_machine
+ * to avoid racing.
+ */
+ kprobes_remove_breakpoint(op->kp.addr, insn);
+
+ list_del_init(&op->list);
+ }
+}
+
+void arch_unoptimize_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ arch_arm_kprobe(&op->kp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Recover original instructions and breakpoints from relative jumps.
+ * Caller must call with locking kprobe_mutex.
+ */
+void arch_unoptimize_kprobes(struct list_head *oplist,
+ struct list_head *done_list)
+{
+ struct optimized_kprobe *op, *tmp;
+
+ list_for_each_entry_safe(op, tmp, oplist, list) {
+ arch_unoptimize_kprobe(op);
+ list_move(&op->list, done_list);
+ }
+}
+
+int arch_within_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op,
+ unsigned long addr)
+{
+ return ((unsigned long)op->kp.addr <= addr &&
+ (unsigned long)op->kp.addr + RELATIVEJUMP_SIZE > addr);
+}
+
+void arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(struct optimized_kprobe *op)
+{
+ __arch_remove_optimized_kprobe(op, 1);
+}
--
1.8.4


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